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Government of Tamil nadu 



Inhuman- Crime 

Department of School Education 

A Publication Under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 


© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition -2011 

(Published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme) 

Text Book Team: 

Mr. J. Damodaran, B.T. Asst., Govt. Hr See. School, Virinjipuram, Vellore Dt. 

Mr. K.Kalaivannan, B.T.Asst., Govt. High School, Muthumariamman Nagar, Jakkampatti , Then! Dt. 

Mrs. S. Margaret, Lecturer, diet, Chennal. 

Mr. S.Rajakumar, P.G.Asst., Kamaraj Hr. Sec. School, Nedumavadi, Thiruchendur Taluk, Thoothukudi Dt. 

Mrs. N. Lima, PG.Asst., Sri Ahoblla Math Oriental Hr. Sec. School, West Mambalam, Chennal. 

Mrs. C.A.Vanaja, RCAsst. (Retd), Lady SivaswamyAyyar Girls' Hr. Sec. School, Mylapore, Chennal. 

Review Committee: 

Mrs. N. Uma, PG.Asst., Sri Ahobila Math Oriental Hr. Sec. School, West Mambalam, Chennal. 


Mrs. Nalini Parthiban, Principal (Retd), Vana Van! Matric. Hr. Sec. School, l.l.T. Campus, Chennal. 

Expert Committee: 

Dr. 8. Swaminatha Pillai, Former Director, School of Distant Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. 

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Textbook Printing 
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College Road, Chennai - 600 006 

Price: Rs. 

This book has been printed on 80 G.S.M Maplitho Paper 

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fi^rfluj S^ui 


g6OT asm ID6OT ^^FBrnuffi giu (Sein] 

uirij^ urrffiiu nSl^rr^rr 
U(|58=n"u srSljBgj (ggijir^ inijrrLLn" 

fiiSljB^iLi nrfjlLnrrd'eu LU(Lp6in'n' aiBJ^T 

^6iJ dru rBrT<oLJi grrCSa 

arrCSfiUT) ^eu giu arr^rr 
g60r fl^fiovr LoiijafiTr ^rriua giu Gain 

urrij^ urrauj aSl^rr^rr 
^lu (d6MD ^lu ^fiUD ^lu tSeuD 

giu fflLu giu giu (SeuT) ! 

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 



Tava subha name jage, 

Java Subha asisa mage, 
Gahe tava jaya-gatha. 

Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he 

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, 

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 

- Rabindranalh Tagore, 


Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he 

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 


Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, 

Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Bind, 

Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal. 
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, 

mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges 

and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. 
They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise 
The saving of all people waits in Thy hand. 
Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee. 

^\y\[(\^\b\ ai_gu(bl^^ r§l6ULj)i_iB6iD^4 ClaL^Q6urr(Lg(^Li] 
#ijn'([3LJi eu^sOTGlmevr^ ^SL^iJij^a^ a^einrri-iil^eu 
Q^aa6Mr(y)LJ) ^^rb^rDjB^ ^irrrnSli-rBGb ^(T^rBrrCbliii 
^^a^p LJ)6iDrDQj^gULJi a[f)ffiffimfr)iiT^ ^6ua^(y)(SLi] 
^^^6oa eurrfferofiurSurreb ^6iD6OT^gj6i)(gii gl6iru(Lpp 
ffr^^6iDd=LL|m L|d5L^Lii6inn-^a gl([3iB^Qu(!3iB ^LflLpeimrr^CSffi ! 

2_6ir #rfl6Tr6roLJi^ ^jDii edliuiBgJ 

Cld=uj6ULi)piBgiJ surrijiai gigi CLJ)! eurrifai gigi SLJi ! eurrijiai gigi CDLJi ! 

- 'ujffiCTrrrgirmfiaHfluLl]' Qu-ffi^^rrfiffTTTTT. 


Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas; 

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant Tilak' is the 
blessed Dravidian land. 

Like the fragrance of that Tilak' plunging the world in joy supreme reigns 
Goddess Tannil with renown spread far and wide. 

Praise unto 'You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires 
awe and ecstasy.' 


"I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and 
integrity of the nation." 

"I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes 
relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be 
settled by peaceful and constitutional means." 


Name : 

Class : School : 

I shall overcome the obstacles raised by caste and communal prejudices and work 
for the greatness of my Motherland putting to the fullest use the benefits that I derive through 

Vande mataram! 





Page No. 


The Model Millionaire (prose) 


To a Millionaire (poem) 


Sam (supplementary reading) 



Music -The Hope Raiser (prose) 


The Piano (poem) 


The Piano Lesson (supplementary reading) 



AGoidenPath (prose) 


Manliness (poem) 


The Face of Judas Iscartot (supplementaiy reading) 



Will Thirst Become Unquenchable ? (prose) 


* Going for Water (poem) 


Swept away (supplementary reading) 



Making Visible the invisible (prose) 


* The Cry of the Children (poem) 


ACIose Encounter (supplementary reading) 



Flying with the Moon on their Wings (prose) 


* Migrant Bird (poem) 


The Summer Flight (supplementary reading) 



Our Heritage -ATimeless Marvel (prose) 


* Shilpi(poem) 


Caught Sneezing (supplementary reading) 


Poems for memorisation: lines for memorisation indicated in the units 



You are indeed a privileged teacher to 
have a class of students who have completed 
nine years of learning and acquiring the basic skills 
of English, and are now ready to take the final steps to 
competence through your help and guidance! As you are 
aware, this year your students will not only be honing their skills and refining their 
abilities but will also be gearing up to face the State Board Examination. Some of 
them may need to face various interviews for further vocational studies or jobs. 

The authors of Std X textbook have kept all these factors in mind while 
preparing the material, ensuring that the content not only motivates the student 
into learning and acquiring proficiency in English but also makes better citizens of 

The passages chosen for study focus in content on the issues of national 
concern expressed in the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and also provide 
an insight into the use of style and genre in literature for those who wish to 
specialize in English at a later date. The Active Learning Methodology has been 
used in most of the exercises. However you to need to be as active a guide and 
facilitator to your students so that you to lead them smoothly through the steps of 
thinking, discovering, learning, expressing, and going beyond the text to make 
their learning experience effective. The prose and poetry selections in each unit 
are thematic and well illustrated with visual images and related verbal references. 
The passages are provided with pre-reading activities which help the students 
grasp the theme of the unit and move smoothly into the process of learning with the 
necessary comprehension, clarity and interest. Formative evaluative questions 
are inserted at intervals within the prose passage to help students assess their 
understanding of the passage. Likewise, there are summative questions to 
provide feedback to teachers on the effectiveness of their teaching. 

The vocabulary section of each unit deals with the usage of words, their 
application and the knowledge of the context in which they are used. Some of the 
difficult words have been omitted in the glossary in order to facilitate students' self 


learning through classroom word games; guessing the meaning; and dictionary 
search activities. Likewise, exercises are not extensively varied nor are they 
repetitive so that you have your own space to apply your creativity and innovation and 
help your students further enrich their vocabulary in the limited class time available. 
Most of the grammar exercises are for an enhanced application of the knowledge 
already acquired in the earlier classes. Essential details are high lighted, followed by 
examples and activities. 

As the St IX and X syllabus for grammar and language functions are 
packaged for study, most of the exercises- though tuned to the context- are designed 
for extensive revision. The integrated grammar exercise furnished at the end of the 
text includes most of the items the student has learnt from classes 6 to 10. However, 
as these exercises are only few and of an elementary nature, teachers might 
supplement them with more challenging activities on every aspect of Grammar. 

The prose passages selected as learning material in each unit, serve as apt 
tools for the integrated learning and usage of the skills of Listening, Speaking, 
Reading and Writing, besides Grammar, Vocabulary and Language functions. 
Exercises furnished to develop the reading skill have been selected with great care, 
catering to the interest and needs of the learners. It would be more effective to allow 
the students to do the activities on their own with minimum but necessary guidance. 

Activities on listening skill concentrate on understanding sounds and 
content; paraphrasing the material prescribed; and reacting, evaluating and 
responding appropriately. Nevertheless, teachers need not limit themselves to the 
given material only but could incorporate news announcements, story telling, poetry 
reading, role plays and other such aural activities to help students enhance their 
listening skill. 

The writing skills have been based on what has been prescribed in the 
syllabus for Std IX and X keeping in mind the necessary craft the student requires to 
express his creative and reflective thoughts through writing, and his need to ably 
tackle the general questions in the Board Examination. Teachers are earnestly 
requested to discourage rote learning from prepared notes and assist students to 
write on their own for both textual and general writing, however tedious the correction 


and evaluation of such writings may be. This area of writing sl^iiis is a test of fire that all 
dedicated and committed teachers must put themselves through. The activities in the 
book will no doubt motivate the student to write but individual attention with prompt 
and personalized feedback would ensure marked improvement in their writing skills. 

Various activities have been presented to encourage students to use the 
language in dialogues and discourses; in narrating of personal experiences; in 
expressing thoughts and feelings; in sharing problems and offering solutions. 
Students would be equipped with the knowledge of preparing and presenting projects 
and write-ups; organizing seminars; interpreting non verbal presentations, 
describing pictures, understanding road maps, developing headlines and formulating 
advertisements with catchy slogans. 

Translation activities have been chosen to build skills of expression in both 
languages - English and Tamil - so that the students could apply them in real life 

The prose and poetry excerpts include formative questions that kindle the 
mind and encourage thinking beyond the text, so that students find a link between 
the passages they have studied and real life situations. There are also hypothetical 
questions which encourage the student to visualize probabilities and possibilities in 
different situations and strategically use the appropriate functions of language like 
Conditionals and Modals to voice their feelings, suggestions, opinions and decisions. 
Parallel reading poems have been placed beside the main poems to help students in 
the enhancement of their literary appreciation. However these poems are not 
included fortesting. 

The supplementary reading materials have been selected for their short, 
simple and comprehensible content, keeping the essential objectives in mind: 
creating a love for reading; encouraging reading with speed and understanding; 
recognizing the variegated mood, attitude and character of individuals; appreciating 
life through literature, and identifying themselves with the meaning of life. It is an 
earnest plea that teachers make the supplementary reading periods lively yet 
contemplative, and discursive, for it is from such classes that future societies emerge. 

Please note : Passages in the text should be studied with focus on the content 
and language only and not on the authors or poets* 


Unit 1 : The passage for study in this unit belongs to the genre of a short story in 
narrative style. The story is set on a social theme of character and wealth. It gives wide 
scope for students to analyse, debate and express their views on human nature and 
on the positive influences of circumstances. It is followed by a poem which shows in 
contrast the haves and the have-nots, and the attitude of the former towards the latter. 
The supplementary reading passage is one of sentiment and emotion, highlighting 
the stages of a child's emotions when having to give up a pet. 

Unit 2: The passage is in the genre of an academic speech and is oratorical in 
style. The theme is centred on the importance of fine arts with special reference to 
music. The passage substantiates the positive power of music in its influence on our 
aesthetic values, our emotional stabilities and our social harmony and peace. 
The corresponding poem highlights music as a key to emotional reminiscences of the 
treasured moments in childhood. The supplementary reading material that follows 
recounts a child's observations on the impact of a musical instrument on his 
parents' life. 

Unit 3: The passage in this unit is in the genre of a public address rendered in 
didactic style. The theme is on personality development, highlighting the essential 
skills of co-operation, adaptability, self-discipline, responsibility and respect which 
every student should possess. It is followed by a poem of advice to youth on how to 
face the challenges of life and become a wholesome human being. The story 
selected for supplementary reading touchingly portrays the outcome of subjecting 
one's character adversely to circumstances, changing one's whole personality and 

Unit 4: The study material in this unit focuses on a global issue of Environment 
and Conservation in connection with climate change and diminishing water supply. 
The write-up is in the genre of narrative nonfiction in a combined style of a factual 
narration and a reflective essay. This study material rings a warning bell which will 
provoke students into discussions on the dreadful consequences if the issues of 
global warming and water scarcity are ignored. The poem, in a shift from the gloomy 
foreboding of the prose reading, spiritedly describes the thrilling experience of 
some youngsters who go into the woods after sunset to fetch water from a brook. 


The supplementary passage which follows is a real-life incident recounting a near- 
death experience of a woman who is sucked into a storm water drain and has a 
miraculous escape. Here, the prose, poetry and supplementary passages in their 
entirety give an insight into the dual dimensions of the elements of Nature and IVIan's 
need to understand and handle them shrewdly. 

Unit 5: The passage for study in this unit tal<es the student directly into two major 
national concerns - the subaltern segment of our society which has been, for a long 
time, un-noticed in the cultural profile of our nation; and the child labourer who is 
denied the right to education and forced to toil and labour for a living with neither 
"dignity, self confidence or strength". The passage is a strongly worded reflective 
response in a journalistic approach to a news item on child labour and abuse. The 
poem carries the theme further by presenting a verbal picture of child labour in the 
past, and depicting through poetic imagery the hardships that children were 
subjected to during the 'Industrial Revolution' in England. The supplementary 
narration, on a lighter vein, brings out the pleasures of childhood with its unrestricted 
freedom in creativity and invention and paints in subtle shades the bonding of siblings 
through all their experiences whether good or bad. 

Unit 6: This unit contains a study material which is in the genre of nonfiction and in 
the style of a children's scientific journal. This short research on the phenomenon of 
bird migration provides, besides the content knowledge, a wide scope for students to 
acquire the scientific registers of language and use them skillfully in their own 
expressions. The accompanying poem is a self-description of a migrant bird through 
whose words the poet contrasts the bird's peaceful determination and unrestricted 
freedom to man's self made barriers and power conflicts. The supplementary story of 
this unit portrays the turmoil in the mind of a young man who has migrated to a foreign 
country and for whom the reality of his dream has lost its lustre. 

Unit 7: This unit is set on the theme of our cultural heritage with special focus on 
the architectural wonder of the thousand year old Brihadeeshvarar Temple of 
Thanjavur in Tamilnadu, commonly referred to as the Big Temple. The reading 
passage is in the genre of a travelogue, the style being picturesquely descriptive in 
depicting the salient features of the temple and the museum in its premises. 

As a complement to the temple's carvings on stone, the poem prescribed for 
study chisels out the creative skill and the mental and physical stress of a temple 
sculptor, who with reverence carves a stone idol and looks with awe and pride at his 
completed creation of God in the image of Man. The supplementary reading passage 
is a story for light reading, describing the clever manner in which a smart child outwits 
villainous thieves and thwarts their attempt at robbing a family. 

The authors of this textbook have made a sincere and committed effort to 
blend the prerequisites of the National Curriculum Framework 2005 with the teaching 
and learning objectives of the Tamilnadu State Revised Syllabus for English, 
incorporating where required the Active Learning Methodology. All the excerpts, 
poems and passages selected here, contain language that is communicable and 
suitable for students to use freely and confidently beyond the classroom. In content 
every selected piece is purposeful and meaningful in the moulding of the students' 
character, personality and outlook and in developing a good citizen for a future 
society. It is hoped that this book would facilitate ample interaction between the 
teachers and learners and make space for a learner friendly atmosphere in the class. 
However it must be emphasized that a language textbook is only a tool and language 
learning is not confined to the pages of a textbook. Teachers need to go to various day 
to day sources like the newspaper, magazine, educative TV and radio programme 
etc. and link them with activities relating to the learning items in the text. A creative 
and an innovative teacher can do more than a textbook can! 

We wish you and the students a memorable year of happy interaction while 
teaching and learning English through this textbook! 





Pre - reading Activity : 

Have you mistaken a teacher or your friend for 
someone else, while looking at them from a distance? 

4^ 'Appearances are deceptive'. Can you judge a person 
by his mere appearance? 

4^ Here is a story which describes the unexpected consequences Oscar Wilde 
of mistaking a person for someone else. 

Hughie was wonderfully good looking with his crisp brown hair, his clear cut 
profile and his grey eyes. He was as popular with men as he was with women, and 
he had every accomplisliment except that of making money. He had tried 
everything. But he became nothing, a delightful, ineffectual young man with a 
perfect profile and no profession. 

Hughie wanted to marry Laura Merton, the daughter of a retired Colonel. The 
Colonel was very fond of Hughie but would not hear of any engagement. "Come to 
me my boy, when you have got ten thousand pounds of your own and we will see 
about it," he said. Hughie looked very glum and he cursed himself for his inability to 
fulfil the condition. 

1 . What was Hughie's financial status? 

2. What was the condition laid down by the 
Colonel to allow Hughie's engagement 
to Laura? 

3. Whywas Hughie upset? 

One morning as he was on his way to 
Holland Park, he dropped in to see a great 
friend of his, Alan Trevor. Trevor was a 
painter. He was a strange rough fellow with 
a freckled face and a red ragged beard. 


- outline of the 

face / head 

accomplishment - a well learned 



- not doing anything 



- (pronounced as 

ker-nel) a high rank 

in the army 


- sullen, dejected, 



- marked with small 

brown spots on 

the skin 


- untidy 

When he took up the brush, he was a real master and his pictures were eagerly 
sought after. 

When Hughie came in, he found Trevor painting the finishing touches to a 
wonderful life size picture of a beggar man. The beggar himself was standing on a 
platform in a corner of the studio. He was a wizened old man with a face like wrinkled 
parchment and a most piteous expression. Over his shoulders was flung a coarse 
brown cloak, all tears and tatters; his thick boots were patched and cobbled and with 
one hand he leant on a rough stick while with the other he held out his battered hat for 

1. What makes you feel Alan was a good painter? 

2. What made the old man look a typical beggar? 

"What an amazing model!" whispered Hughie, as he shook hands with 
his friend. 

"An amazing model?" shouted Trevor at the top of his voice. "I should think so! 
Such beggars as he are not to be met with every day." 

"Poor old chap!" said Hughie, "how miserable he looks! But I suppose to you 
painters, his face is his fortune?" 

"Certainly you don't want a beggar to look happy, do you?" 

"How much does a model get for sitting?" asked Hughie. 

"A shilling an hour." 

"And how much do you get for your picture, Alan?" 

"Oh! Forthis I get two thousand pounds." 



- looking dried up through 

- a piece of paper 

- sad, sorrowful 

- made of large rough cloth 

- offerings J 

1 . Why is the model's face his fortune? 
2- How many shillings make a pound? 
3. In our country models pose for advertisements. How much do 
you think they are paid? 

After sometime, the servant came in and told Trevor that 
the frame makerwanted to speak to him. "Don't run away Hughie" 
he said, as he went out, "I'll be back in a moment". The old beggar 
took advantage of Trevor's absence to rest for a moment on a 
wooden bench. He looked so forlorn that Hughie could not help 
pitying him. All he could find was a sovereign and some coppers. 
"Poor old fellow", he to himself and slipped the sovereign into the beggar's hand. The 
old man said, "Thank you sir". Then Trevor arrived and Hughie took his leave. 

The next day when Hughie visited Trevor, he was surprised to hear that the 
model kept asking Trevor for all details about him. Trevor informed Hughie that he had 
clearly explained Hughie's condition to the old model. "What! You told that old beggar 
all my private affairs?" cried Hughie looking very red and angry. "My dear boy", said 
Trevor smiling, "that old beggar as you call him is one of the richest men in Europe. He 
is Baron Hausberg. He is a great friend of mine". 

What was the beggar's true Identity? 

"Good Heavens! I gave him a sovereign!" and he sank into an armchair. "Gave 
him a sovereign!" shouted Trevor and he burst into a roar of laughter. 

"What will he think of me?" said Hughie. "Oh, my God! I could not make out 
why he was so interested to know all about you; but I see it all now. He will invest your 
sovereign for you, Hughie, pay you the interest every six months and have a capital 
story to tell after dinner," commented Trevor. 

Why did Hughie fear an adverse reaction from the Baron? 


- forsaken, lonely 


- a former gold coin 

worth 1 pound 


- coins of lower 

denomination / 

The next morning as he was at breakfast, the servant brought him a card on 
which was written Baron Hausberg and Hughie told the servant to show the visitor up. 
An old gentleman came into the room. "I have come from Baron Hausberg", he 
continued. "I beg sir, that you will offer him my apologies," stammered Hughie. 

Why did Hughie wish to apologise to the Baron? 

£¥€ $ 

"The Baron", said the old gentleman with a smile, "has commissioned me to 
bring you this letter", and he extended a sealed envelope, on which was written "A 
wedding present to Hugh Erskine - Hughie and Laura - from an 'old beggar'" and 
inside was a cheque for ten thousand pounds. 

commissioned - ordered 

"Millionaire models" remarked Alan, "are rare enough, but by Joe! Model 
Millionaires are rarerstill!" 

Pondering over the text : 

1 . Why did Hughie grow angry with Trevor? 

2. Why did Trevor remark that such beggars as the model were not to be met with 
every day? 

3. Why did Hughie grow offended at Trevor's act of discussing his affairs with some 

4. What was the Baron's reaction to Hughie's innocent act of awarding him a coin? 

5. Differentiate - 'Millionaire Models' and 'Model Millionaires'. 

More about the text : 

1 . How would you justify the title of the story? 

2. Attempt a character sketch of a) Hughie; b) the Baron. 

3. Think of a different way in which Hughie's problem could have been solved. 

4. Imagine another possible reaction the Baron could have had on receiving alms 
from Hughie. 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . Who was Hughie? How had Hughie treated the model who posed for Trevor? 

2. What was the result of Hughie's mistaking the Baron for a beggar? 

Vocabulary : 

Choose the context that is nearest in meaning to the Italicised word in 
each sentence: 

1 . Hughie was popufar with everyone. 

a) The answer remains unknown. 

b) Kolkata is a populous city. 

c) The rat peeped out of its hole. 

d) Sachin is a well known cricketer. 

2. What an amaz/zig model!' said Trevor. 

a) The patient had a surprising recovery. 

b) The scenery was splendid. 

c) The walls were brightly painted. 

d) The issue is an alarming one. 

3. The man held out his battered hat for alms. 

a) The rear portion of the car was beaten out of shape. 

b) The batsman batted continuously fortwo hours. 

c) The house he lives in is modern and huge. 

d) He was dressed in rags. 

4. He extended a sealed envelope. 

a) My friend offered me an invitation to the party. 

b) The crowd kept swelling. 

c) The narrow road expanded into a highway after a while. 

d) The doctor examined the patient carefully. 

5. His thick boots were patehed and cobbled. 

a) I got my new shoes from the cobbler 

b) He gobbled up the food hungrily 

c) The cable is under repair 

d) All the tears in the dress have been sewn up 

Choose the best antonyms for the italicisBd words from the options 
given below : 

1. He cursed himself for his inability to fulfil the condition. 

a) inadequacy b) capacity c) ability d) sincere 

2. His pictures were eagerly sought after. 

a) expectantly b) enthusiastically c) differently d) indifferently 

3. His expression was the most piteous one. 

a) pathetic b) joyous c) patient d) anxious 

4. Do not tell him all my private affairs. 

a) impersonal b) public c) secret d) privileged 

5. Such men as the Baron are very rare . 

a) common b) uncommon c) difficult d)dear 

Construct your own sentences using the phrases given below : 

to make matters worse, used to, take up, on account of 

Fill in the blanks with the right homophones : 

1. The colour of your is the same as that of the (hair/hare) 

2. Do you the answer? , I don't, (no /know) 

3. lean thebellfrom (hear/here) 

4 day on earth is measured by the (hour/ our) 

5. He wants to aflat selling his house, {by/ buy) 


Reported Speech - Revision 

Let us recall and revise what we have learnt in Std IX. 

Look at these sentences: 
Statements - 

(Direct speech) "What can I do for you?" the Headmaster asked the boy. 

"I have come to ask you for a scholarship", the boy said. 

(Indirect speech) The Headmaster asked the boy what he could do for him. 

The boy replied that he had come to ask him for a scholarship. 

Interrogatives -Yes / No questions 

(Direct speech) The doctor asked the patient, "Do you smoke?" 

(Indirect speech) The doctor asked the patient whether (if) he smoked. 

Interrogatives -*wh* questions 

(Direct) The teacher said to the boys, "Where do you want to go?" 

(Indirect) The teacher asked the students where they wanted to go. 

Imperative sentence 

(Direct) The teacher said to the boys, "Don't write on both sides of the 

(Indirect) The teacher asked the boys not to write on both sides of the 


Exclamatory sentences 

(Direct) "What a beautiful view it is!" said my friend. 

(Indirect) My friend said that it was a very beautiful view. 

Note: When a sentence in the direct speech is transformed into the reported speech, it 
undergoes certain changes. Can you identify them? 

Write what the people actually said : 

1 . The teacher told the students that the students had done very well in the test. 
The teacher said to the students, " " 

2. The Prime Minister said that he was determined to abolish poverty. 

The Prime Minister said, " " 

3. All holy scriptures advise us to do our duty without worrying about the result. 
All holy scriptures say, " " 

4. The teacher asked me whether I was going to join the Medical course or the 
Engineering course. 

The teacher said to me," " 

5. Shyam's grandfather advised him not to waste his time in unnecessary activities. 
Shyam's grandfather said to him," " 


Report the dialogue given below to yourfriend 



Doctor, a bee has stung me. The pain is unbearable. 

Don't worry; I'll apply some cream on it. 

You'll neverfind that bee. It must be far away. 

No, I'll apply the cream on the place where you were stung. 

Oh! It happenedin the park where I was sitting under a tree. 

No, No, you are mistaken; I mean, on the part of your body where the 

bee stung you. 

Oh, it was on my finger! 

Which one? 

How am I to know? All bees look the same to me. 

Oh my God! I have never come across such a foolish person in my life! 

Match the utterance with the situation and complete the statement : 

1 ) "Oh! 1 am tired! " 

(Moliana toiler aunt) 

Raghu has not brought the leave letter. 

0\ "1 \A/ill nnt ^YPiiQP \/ni 1 " 

Sunitha has failed to return the library 
books on time. 

£.j 1 will iiuL CAuuoc yuu. 


3) "1 don't need a 50 rupee note. Don't 
?" (Conductor to 

the passenger) 

A tourist wants to find his way to the 

A.\ "^1 inithis) vrti i r»i inht tr» —————— 

Mohana has been working hard for her 

" (\ ihrarisin tr* ^iiriin 

. ^i_iiji di idi 1 nj oui iiiy 

5) "Which is ?" 

(Tourist to the policeman) 

The passenger has not brought enough 

Kinds of Sentences : 

f do not like 
eat id) is 




Keshav has said something in a sentence. He has made a statBmBnt His statement 

is in the affirmative. 

Jasmine too has made a statement. Her statement is in the negative. 

Here we have two kinds of sentences - the Affirmative sentence and the 

Negative sentence. 








Raghu asl<s a question. His sentence is an Interrogative sentence. 

Sarathy answers expressing his feeling. His sentence is an Exc/a/natory sentence. 

Anandh calls the boys. He instructs them. "Don't stand there talking" - this sentence 

is a Command or /mperat/Ve sentence. 

These are the five kinds of sentences we use in a language. 

Activity: Identify the sentences according to their kind. 

1 . How talented you are! 

2. Open your books at page 80. 

3. I do not want to see this movie. 

4. May I go out to play please? 

5. The rivers run dry in summer. 

6. There is no water in the lake. 

7. Can you show me the way to the railway station? 

8. What a dirty place this is! 

9. Please leave yourfootwearoutside the hall. 

10. This lesson is interesting. 


The idea in one kind of sentence can be expressed through another kind of 


Look at the following sentences: 

1 . What an amazing performance! (Exclamatory) 

The performance was amazing. (Statement-Affirmative) 

2. Can anyone be more patient than a mother? (Interrogative) 

No one can be more patient than a mother. (Statement-Negative) 

3. Leave the room now. (Imperative) 

You should leave the room immediately. (Statement**Affirmative) 

Activity: Transfoim as directed: 

1. How ferocious the tiger is! (into a statement) 

2. No one can match his intelligence, (i nto an affirmative sentence) 

3. Does anyone dare to disobey the Headmaster? (into a statement) 

4. heck your belongings before you leave, (into a statement) 

5. Is there any substance hotter than fire? (into a statement) 

6. He is always late in completing his work, (into a negative sentence) 

7. How can you give up the project when it is nearing completion? 
(into a statement) 

8. Fill all the vessels with water, (into a statement) 

Question Tags 
Look at this question : 

"Do you have a pen?" 
You ask this question because you do not know if the person has a pen. 
Now if you thought the person had a pen but you were in doubt, you would ask the 
question thus: 

"You have a pen, haven't you?" 
If you thought the person did not have a pen, but you weren't sure and wanted to 
confirm it, you would ask, 

"You don't have a pen, do you?" 
Note that the first part of your question is a statement followed by a question tag. If 
the statement is affirmative, the tag will be negative and if the statement is negative. 


the tag will be affirmative. The tag will take the pronoun in the place of the noun in the 

statement, e.g. This lesson is easy, isn't it ? 

Students of Std X have no time to waste, have they ? 

You can study well, can't you ? 

The bell has not rung, has it ? 

The sun sets in the west, doesn't it ? 

People shouldn't be rude to one another, should thev ? 


Form question tags for the following statements. 

(a) AfTlrmative statements will have negative tags. 

(b) Negative statements will have an affirmative tag. 

(c) The tag will contain a pronoun. 

1. The bus is early today, ? 

2. There is no water in the tank, ? 

3. People oughtto keep the streets clean, ? 

4. I shall carry the bagsforyou, ? 

5. The conductor will not give you change for Rs. 10/-, ? 

6. Ourteam will win the match, ? 

7. Theflag has four colours on it, ? 

8. I haven't answered your questions, ? 

9. Plants give out oxygen during the day, ? 

10. You should treat each other with respect, ? 

Lfstening skill: 

Listen to the following infomnation on a contemporary millionaire and answer the 
questions that follow : 

Warren Edward Buffet born on August 30, 1930, is an American investor, 
industrialist and philanthropist. He is one of the most successful investors in the 
world. Often called "the legendary investor", he is the primary shareholder, chairman 
and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway. He was ranked as the world's wealthiest person in 
2009 and is currently the third wealthiest person in the world as of 201 0. 


Buffett is also a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 99 percent 
of his fortune to philanthropic causes, primahly via the Gates Foundations. In 2009, 
after donating billions of dollars to charity, Buffett was ranked as the second richest 
man in the United States, with only Bill Gates ranked higher than Buffett. In June 
2006, he announced a plan to give away his fortune to charity, with 83% of it going to 
the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, making It the largest charitable donation in 

A significant proportion of his wealth will not go to his 
children. His action is consistent with his principle that is 
against the transfer of great fortunes from one generation to 
the next. Buffet once commented, "I want to give my kids just 
enough so that they would feel that they could do anything, 
but not so much that they would feel like doing nothing". 

Questions : 

1 . Buffet is known as 

a) the model millionaire b) the legendary donator 

c) the legendary investor d) a great philanthropist 

State whether the following statement is true or false: 
Buffet is currently rated as the wealthiest person in the world. 

is appreciated for his largest contribution to charity. 

a) Bill Gates b) Melinda Gates 

c) Berkshire Hathaway d) Edward Warren Buffet 

4. Buffetdidnotwishto 

a) transfer his huge property to the next generation 

b) contribute much to the society 

c) improve the Investment sector 

d) make huge donations to the poor 

5. Having too much money would make people 

a) ideal b) charitable c) active d) idle 


Speaking Skill: 
Group Activity 

a) The class is to be divided into two groups. The topic for 
discussion is "The aspiration to become an author or a 
journalist is not strong in students of today." 

Remember the following : 

Say "Excuse me" when you need to interrupt the one who is speaking. 

Say, "I'm sorry, I don'tagreewith you" when your viewpoint differs. 

Start with "In my opinion..."; "I think..." or"! would say that..." when you express 

your impressions. 

b) Imagine this situation. You have not seen your uncle, who has been living abroad 
for over a decade. One day he knocks at the door, when you are alone at home. 
You mistake him for an inquisitive stranger and enquire his whereabouts, 
profession etc. While you are arguing with him, your parents return home and 
clarify the matter. Narrate this incident to your friends. 

Reading Skill: 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : 
The Autobiography of a Euro 

It took three long years for my coming into existence, after "^^^ 
the idea of a new currency was conceived. I was first conceived 
and named on 1^^ Jan, 1999, when eleven European countries ^ 
decided to have a new money form i.e. Euro. My value was 
determined as per the conversion rate fixed by these countries in terms of their own 
currencies. On 1'* January 2002, I was circulated as currency notes when twelve 
countries adopted me as their currency. Some countries opposed the idea of using 
me and initially refused to accept me. But now almost all the European countries have 
accepted me as valid currency. My brother Dollarwho is in America, my brother Lira 
residing in Italy and my sister Sterling were quite jealous of me but soon they 
accepted my existence and started respecting me. I now enjoy a place of pride 
among all the currencies in the world and almost everyone accepts me freely 


1 . When did Euro come into worldwide acceptance? 

2. Euro was accepted without opposition- Is this statement true or false? 


3. Bring out the sibling rivalry in the family of Euro. 

4. What is the present status of Euro? 

5. To which continent does this currency belong? Find out the names of at 
least three countries whose currency is the Euro. 


Writing Skill: 

A, Can nioney buy happiness? Develop your ideas, using the point given 
below. Use your points and write a paragraph on the topic. 

Yes , because money 

No, because money doesn't 

buys house / clothes / car 

get you health, happiness 

B. Know Your Idioms: 

1. Apennyforyourthoughts? 

2. a chance in a million 

3. two sides ofthe same coin 

4. a million dollarquestion 

5. as good as gold 

6. to cash in on 

7. thirty pieces of silver 

What are you thinking about? 
either no chance at all or a very slim chance 
two contrasting characters in the same category 
a question with a much awaited and 
valuable answer 
very well behaved 
to take advantage 

the money paid to Judas Iscariot for 
betraying Jesus. Christ (This phrase is 
used as a symbol of betrayal) 
C. Write dialogues for the following situations : 

1 . Sarathy visits the doctor, complaining of a headache and fever. Build conversation 
between the doctor and Sarathy, with a minimum of five utterances each. 

2. Sumathi has won the first prize at an elocution competition. She excitedly informs 
her mother of this, describing the number of contestants, the manner in which she 
spoke and how she had overcome her nervousness. Write adialogue with a 
minimum offive exchanges for this situation. 




The world in gloom and splendour passes by, 
And thou in the midst of it with brows that gleam, 
Acreature of that old distorted dream 
That makes the sound of life an evil cry. 
Good men perform just deeds, and brave men die. 
And win not honour such as gold can give. 
While the vain multitudes plod on, and live, 
And serve the curse that pins them down. But I 
Think only of the unnumbered broken hearts, 
The hunger and the mortal strife for bread. 
Old age and youth alike mistaught, misfed, 
Bywantandragsandhomelessness made vile. 
The griefs and hates, and all the meaner parts 
That balances thy one grim misgotten pile. 
- Archibald Lampman 


plod on 





- large number of people 

- move on very slowly 

- struggle 

- evil 

- gloomy, depressed 

- heap J 

1 . You find a contrast in the first line of the 
poem. What is it? 

2. In this contrast, the poet addresses someone as 'thou' .Who does the word 
'thou' refer to? 

3. (a) Is the millionaire among his own kind of people? Give reasons for your answer, 
(b) Who does the word ' creature' refer to? (clue: answer lies in the first four lines) 

4. How does the good man's honour differ from that of the millionaire? 

Fill In the blanks: 

(a) The poet thinks of the many people who are hearted and struggle 

with for bread. 

(b) These unnumbered people are made up of the old and . 

(c) All these unnumbered people have been taught wrong values and do not 
have proper clothing or . 


(d) Such people become with desire and are filled with sorrow 

and . 

(e) The number of such people balance the wealth the has. 

6. Do you think the money earned by the millionaire is 'misgotten'? Can you think of 
some means by which this money could have been obtained? 

7. When will a millionaire's wealth be considered 'a misgotten pile'? 

8. The character of people changes with the alterations in their living conditions. 
Does this statement hold good always? Why do you say so? 

9. Pick out the words in the poem that show the poet's negative opinion about 
the millionaire. 

Answer in a paragraph : 

a) How does the poet portray a millionaire? 

b) What are the views of the poet on the manner in which the millionaire acquires 
his wealth? 

Literary appreciation : 

Figure of speech: 

The world in gloom and splendour passes by, 

Here the world is personified as a human being passing by. 

This aspect of portraying a non-living thing as a living person is called 


Rhyming words: 

In lines 1 to 4, the following are rhyming words: 

by - cry (lines 1 and 4), gleam- dream (lines 2 and 3) 

1 . List out the words that rhyme in lines 5 to 8. 

2. Also find out the rhyming words in lines 9 to 1 4. 

3. You notice that the words 'distorted' and 'dream' are in alliteration. Give at least 
one more instance of alliteration from the poem. 

Thinking beyond the text : 

Do you think Lampman's 'millionaire' is alike in character to Oscar Wilde's 



SAM - Tammy Ruggles 

It was a chilly, rainy morning; terrible weatherfor summer. 

School was out, but I couldn't go outside and play because Mom said I 
would get sick. 

So, I put on my jacket and went out on the front porch, and that's where I found 
this blond Labrador with a hurt paw. 

"Gee, what happened to you?" I asked as I knelt down beside him. 

He whined and put his head down on his good paw. 

There wasn't a collar, so I didn't know who he belonged to or what I should do. 

It seemed kind of mean to call the dogcatcher on a hurt animal. 

"Mom!" I shouted as I ran inside the house. But 
Mom was gone. I'd forgotten that she had to go to the 

Aid kit. 

Oh well. I went to my room and got out my First ^ 

It wasn't a real one. Just the one I played 
doctor and patient with, but it had stuff from my Mom's 
real one, like iodine, bandages, stuff like that. 

After carrying medical supplies out on the porch, I bent down to the dog again. 
"What's your name, huh?" The dog only whined. 

"Guess I'll call you Goldy" I told him, "since you're gold." 

I nursed the dog's paw as best as I could, then sat down next to him and patted 
his head because he seemed kind of sad. Questions circled through my mind, like. 
How did he get hurt? Who did he belong to? Where did he live? How did he get lost? 
Goldy and I sat together until Mom came home. 

"Can I keep him. Mom?" 


She knelt down with us and patted the dog's head too. "He probably belongs to 
someone, Shelly. He must have somehow got separated from his master. We need 
to find his owner" My heart sank. I knew she was going to say that. 

"But if the owner doesn't show up, I guess he's ours." 

So Mom put a notice in the paper, and we waited. It was the longest wait of my 
life. Goldy was a good dog, and mended more every day. At first he couldn't walk on 
his paw at all, but then little by little it healed. 

The days went by with no one showing up to claim the dog. When Goldy was 
feeling all better, we played Frisbee and football in the yard. He was a very smart dog, 
and knew commands like "Sit", "Stay", and "Come". 

"Someone must have trained him". Mom said sadly. "That means he has an 
owner." But still no one came. Secretly, I was glad. I wanted Goldy to be my dog. 
Mom even put his picture in the paper, and still no one came. 

"Guess he's your dog now. Shelly," she said one day, as she brought home a 
new chew toyfor Goldy to play with. "Yey!" I yelled jumping up and down. 

Goldy was even beginning to act like my dog. He followed me to school, and 
waited all day until I came out. He even walked beside me, and on the outside of the 
sidewalk to get between me and the traffic. 

Then one day when we got home from school, a strange van was in the 
driveway, and there was a lady with dark sunglasses 
and a white cane on our front porch talking to Mom. 
A man was with her. Goldy started barking and ran up 
to the blind lady. 

"Sam!" the lady laughed, and Goldy ran into 
her arms. Goldy whined with love, licking all over 
the lady's face. I looked at Mom. She didn't 
have to tell me what was going on. Goldy 
wasn't really Goldy. He was Sam. And he 
was her Sam. Her guide dog. My heart sank. 


The lady began to cry, and so did Sam, by the sound of him. They looked so 
happy to be reunited. I started to cry too, but for a different 
reason. I was going to lose my new best friend. 

"Thank you, Shelly", the lady said holding her hand out 
for me to shake, "for taking care of Sam. We were in a traffic U 
accident, and somehow we got separated when I went to the 
hospital. I guess he lost his collar and harness too." I looked 
at her hand, I didn't want to give Goldy up, but I could see that 
it was this lady he really belonged to. Not me. I was just 

She needed him, and he needed her. He was a trained 
working dog with an important job to do. They were happy 
together. And I definitely wanted Sam to be 

I did what I knew was right, and 
shook Diane's hand. 

"You're welcome," I told her. It 
was hard letting him go, but it would 
have been harder keeping him from his 
rightful owner. "You can come visit him 
anytime you like," Diane offered. 

That put a big smile on my face. 
"Thank you." I said and watched the car 
with the two happy souls disappear 
round the driveway. 

porch - verandah 

mended - improved 

show up - turnup 

frisbee - a game in which a plastic 

disc that spins in the air is 

thrown and caught by the 

driveway - a road that leads to the 

collar - a band placed around the 

neckofan animal to 

identify it 
harness (n) - a set of straps put around 

the body to control the 


Choose the correct answer 

1. The boy found the 

a) labrador 

2. The boy called the dog 

a) sweety 

with a hurt paw. 
b) dobermann 

b) goldy 

c) pomeranian 
c) browny 


3. Theimportant job the dog had was 

a) to catch thieves b) to guard Diane's house c) to guide Diane 

4. Who were reunited? 

a) Shelly and Sam b) Sam and Goldy c) Diane and Sam 

5. A is nota pet animal. 

a) dog b) cat c) tiger 

Answer the following questions; 

1 . Describe the condition of the dog when spotted by the boy. 

2. Why didn't the boy hand over the animal to the dogcatcher? 

3. How did the boy tend to the wounded dog? 

4. Did Shelly's mother readily permit him to retain the dog with himself? Why? 

5. Describe the happy times that Shelly and Goldy had together. 

6. How did Shelly's mother guess that the dog had already been trained? 

7. How did Goldy act like he had always belonged to Shelly? 

8. How were Shelly's dreams shattered? 

9. What made Sam partfrom the lady? 

1 0. What made Shelly entrust Sam once again to the lady? 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1. Narrate the story in your own words. 

2. How would you feel if your pet animal was lost? Describe what your reaction 
would be when you found it again. 

Parallel Reading : 'The Lost Child' byTagore 

Tongue Twister 

Faithful friends freely forgive. 

Tie twine to three tree twigs. 

A Funny Answer 

What is the difference between a bottle of 

medicine and a door mat? 

One is shaken up and taken and 

the other is taken up and shaken. 




Pre - reading Activity : 

>=> What sort of music do you listen to : cine songs, classical, 
western? Why? 
«=> How does music change your mood? Do you feel refreshed or gain 
consolation or lose hope on listening to music? 
<=> Who is your favourite singer / instrumentalist? 
"=> What do your parents suggest regarding your career? 
<=> Do all parents think that music is as important as education? Why do you say so? 

Dr. Karl Paulnack, pianist and director of the music division at The Boston 
Conservatory, gave this fantastic welcome address to the parents of incoming 
students at The Boston on September 1, 2004: 

"Oneof my parents' deepest fears, I suspect, is that society would not properly 
value me as a musician, that I wouldn't be appreciated. I had very good grades in high 
school, I was good in science and math, and they imagined that as a doctor or a 
research chemist or an engineer, I might be more appreciated than I would be as a 
musician. I still remember my mother's remark when I announced my decision to 
apply to music school. She said, "you're wasting your SAT scores!" On some level, I 
think, my parents were not sure what the value of music was, what its purpose was. 
And they loved music: they listened to classical music all the time. They just weren't 
really clear about its function. So let me talk about that a little bit, because we live in a 
society that puts music in the "arts and entertainment" section of the newspaper. 
Serious music, the kind your kids are about to engage in, has absolutely nothing 
whatsoever to do with entertainment, in fact it's the opposite of entertainment. Let me 
talk a little bit about music, and how it works. 

What was the author's choice of career?, How was this against his parents' wish ? 
Do you think music is different from entertainment? 

One of the first cultures to 
articulate how music really works was 
that of the ancient Greeks. And this is 

articulate - to express thoughts or 
feelings clearly in words 



going to fascinate you: the Greeks said tiiat music and astronomy were two sides of 
the same coin. Astronomy was seen as the study of relationships between 
observable, permanent, external objects, and music was seen as the study of 
relationships between invisible, internal, hidden objects. 

Music has a way of finding the big, invisible moving pieces inside our hearts 
and souls and helping us figure out the position of things inside us. Let me give you 

some examples of how this works. 

figure out(v) - make out 

1 . Two sides of the same coin' would meailJ h) similar in every way 
b) similar in approach but different in aim 'G) two opposites in every way. 

2. How is music different from astronomy? - * 

■' "*^,^ 

One of the most profound musical compositions of all time is the "Quartet for 

the End of Time" written by a French composer Olivier 
Messiaen in 1940. Messiaen was 31 years old when 
France entered the war against Nazi Germany. He 
was captured by the Germans in June of 1940 and 
imprisoned in a prisoner-of-war camp. 

profound - felt or 
experienced very strongly 
Quartet - a piece of music 
composed for a group of 
four musicians or singers 

He was fortunate to find a sympathetic prison guard who gave him paper and a 
place to compose, and was fortunate to have musician colleagues in the camp, a 
cellist, a violinist, and a clarinetist. Messiaen wrote his quartet with these specific 
players in mind. It was performed in January 1941 for four thousand prisoners and 

guards in the prison camp. Today it is one 

repertoire (pronounced as rep-et-war) - 
all the plays, songs, pieces of music etc 
that a performer knows and can perfornvJ reoertoire 

How did Messiaen spend his time in prison? 

Given what we have since learned about life in the 
Nazi camps, why would anyone in his right mind waste time 
and energy writing or playing music? There was barely 
enough energy on a good day to find food and water, to avoid 
a beating, to stay warm, to escape torture-why would anyone 
bother with music? And yet-even from the concentration 


of the most famous mastenA/orks in the 

fiWho is Messiaen? 
Oliver Eugene Prosper 
Charles Messiaen of 
France was a child 
prodigy in music and 
was academically 
qualified at a very early 
age. During the World 
War II, he was enlisted 
as a medical auxiliary 
owing to his poor 

camps, we have poetry, we have music, we have visual art; it wasn't just this one 
fanatic Messiaen; many, many people created art. Why? Well, in a place where 
people are only focused on survival, on the bare necessities, the obvious conclusion 
is that art must be, somehow, essential for life. The camps were without money, 
without hope, without commerce, without 
recreation, without basic respect, but they were 
not without art. Art is part of survival; art is part of 
the human spirit, an unquenchable expression of 
who we are. Art is one of the ways in which we say, 
"I am alive, and my life has meaning." 

fanatic - a person who is 

extremely enthusiastic about 


unquenchable - that cannot be 

satisfied > 

1 . Why did art find a place, even in concentration camps? 

2. What is the significance of art? 

irreverent - not 

showing respect 

In September of 2001 I was a resident of Manhattan. On the morning of 
September 12, 2001 I reached a new understanding of my art and its relationship to 

the world. I sat down at the piano that morning 
at 1 a. m to practise as was my daily routine; I 
did it by force of habit, without thinking about 
it. I lifted the cover on the keyboard, and 
opened my music, and put my hands on the 
keys and just as soon took my hands off it. 
And I sat there and thought, does this even 
matter? Isn't this completely irrelevant? 
Playing the piano right now, given what 
happened in this city yesterday, seems silly, 
absurd, irreverent, and pointless. Why am I 
here? What place has a musician in this 
moment in time? Who needs a piano player 
right now? I was completely lost. And then I, 
along with the rest of New York, went through 
the journey of getting through that week. I did 
not play the piano that day, and in fact I 
contemplated briefly whether I would ever 


<fi Do you know what happened in 
Nazi camps? 

The Nazi Germany established about 
20,000 camps to imprison many 
millions of victims, between 1933 and 
1945. These places were called 
'concentration camps', because 
those imprisoned were physically 
concentrated in one location. In these 
forced labour camps thousands of 
prisoners of war (POW) were shot or 
gassed. Gas chambers (rooms filled 
with poisonous gas to kill those 
inside) were created to kill thousands 
of Jews everyday, fi 

want to play the piano again . And tiien I observed how we got through the day. 
Why didn't the narrator play the piano after the terrible incident ? 

S What happened on September 11, 2001 ? 

The Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre, New York, 
USA, were attacked and destroyed on September 11, 2001 by 
terrorists who hijacked and drove the planes into the Twin Towers 
thereby causing the collapse of the Twin Towers. A 

|4ioops - basketball rings through which 
players throw the ball to score points 
Scrabble - a board game in which players 
try to make words from letter blocks and 
connect them to words already placed on 
the board 
mall -a place with lots of shops . 

At least in my neighborhood, we 
didn't shoot hoops or play Scrabble. 
We didn't play cards to pass the time, 
we didn't watch TV, we didn't shop, we 
most certainly did not go to the mall. 

^ The first organized activity that I saw in 

New York, on the very evening of September 1 1 th, was singing. People sang 

around fire houses, people sang "We Shall Overcome". Lots of people sang "America 
the Beautiful". The first organized public event that I remember was the Brahms 
Requiem, later that week, at Lincoln Center, with the New York Philharmonic. The first 
organised public expression of grief, our first communal response to that historic 
event, was a concert. That was the beginning of a sense that life might go on. The US 
Military secured the airspace, but recovery was led by the arts, and by music in 
particular, that very night. 

Howdid people express their grief ? 

From these two experiences, I have come to understand that music is not part 
of "arts and entertainment" as the newspaper section would have us believe. It's not a 
luxury, a lavish thing that we fund from leftovers of our budgets, not a plaything or an 
amusement or a pastime. Music is a basic need of human survival. Music is one of the 
ways we make sense of our lives, one of the ways in which we express feelings when 
we have no words, a way for us to understand things with our hearts when we can't 
with our minds. 

Why isn't m usic an extravaganza or a hobby? 


Johannes Brahms 
composed the German 
Requiem between 1865 
and 1868. It comprises 
seven movements, which 
together last 65 to 80 
minutes making this work 
Brahms' longest 

The New York 
Philharmonic (officially 
the Philharmonic- 
Symphony Society of 
New York) is a symphony 
orchestra based in New 
York City in the United 

'We Shall Overcome' is derived from 
Charles Tindley's gospel song 7 Will Overcome 

'America the Beautiful' was a song adapted 
by Guy Caravan, Cindy Caravan and a few others, 
near Tennessee. 

Zubin Mehta, then one of the youngest of a 
new generation of internationally known 
conductors, became the Music Director of the 
Royal Philharmonic in 1978. His tenure was the 
longest in Philharmonic history, lasting until 1991. 

Ilaiyaraaja, an Indian Tamil film composer, 
singer, lyricist was the first Asian composer to 
score a symphony for the Royal Philharmonic 
Orchestra. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan, 
India's third highest civilian honour, in the year 

Frankly, ladies and gentlemen, I expect you not 

master(v) - to learn or 
understand completely 

only to master music; I expect you to save the planet. If 

there is a future wave of wellness on this planet, of 

harmony, of peace, of an end to war, of mutual understanding, of equality, of fairness, I 

don't expect it will come from a government, a military force or a corporation. I no 

longer even expect it to come from the religions of the world, which together seem to 

have brought us as much war as they have peace. 

If there is a future of peace for humankind, if there is to be an understanding of 
how these invisible, internal things should fit together, I expect it will come from the 
artists, because that's what we do. As in the concentration camp and the evening of 
9/1 1 , the artistes are the ones who might be able to help us with our internal, invisible 

1 . What are the two incidents that stress the importance of music as an essential art? 

2. What can artistes do to save the pianet? 


Reflecting on the text: 

1) What is your ambition in life? Would you consider a career in music? Would 
you like to become another A.R.Rehman or Zakir Hussain? 

2) Suppose there were no sources of entertainment like television sets, cell phones, 
computers, books etc. , how do you think human beings would spend their time? 

3) Are you in the habit of whistling to yourself or humming a tune when you are 
very happy? Why? 

4) When a tragedy has struck your friend or neighbour, how would you express your 
grief over the incident? If you have lost someone dear to you and are unable to 
bear the grief, what do you do? 

5) After a gruesome incident is it only despair or is there room for hope? How would 
you justify your answer? 

6) The writer says we realise ourselves through music. Do you agree with this 
statement? Why? 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1) Describe the courageous way the Americans overcame the 'Fall of the Twin 

2) What lesson does Messaien teach mankind through his attitude towards music 
while he was in the concentration camp ? 


Observe the spelling of the following words : 

center, practice(v), focused, organize 

The Americans use this spelling. But, these words are spelt in British English as 

centre, practise(v), focussed, organise 


Here are some words spelt in British English. 

Here are some words spelt in British English. 

Write their equivalents in American English: 

metre, programme, colour, sliilful, theatre, neighbour, favourite, tyre 


Some words in British English have different equivalents in American English. | 

British English /World English 

American English 









boot (of car) 



window shade 


french fries 



cutting(from a newspaper) 



garbage can, trashcan 

Are brigade 

fire department 

goods train 

freight train 

Some idioms in British English have 

similar equivalents or phrasing in 

American English. 

British English /Worid English 

American English 

to blow one's own tmrnpet 

to blow one's own horn 

iike a cat on hot bricks 

like a cat on a hot tin roof 

to lock the stable door after \ 
the horse has boJted / 

f to lock the bam door after 
\ the horse is stolen 

a storm in a teacup 

a tempest in a teacup/teapot 

Activity : 

Match the words in British English with their equivalents in American English: 1 

British English /World English 

American English 

Interval (in a cinema) 




rise(in salary) 


shop assistant 


single (ticket) 

witness stand 

torch (battery operated) 

safes clerk 





witness box 

one way 



Abbreviations and Acronyms : 

An abbreviation (from Latin brews, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word 1 

or phrase. 


Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the 
word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the 
abbreviation abbr, abbrv. or abbrev., Abbreviations should not be confused with 
Contractions or Acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some 
semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are commonly connoted by the 
term "abbreviation". 

\ An abbreviation is a shortening by any method. (e.g:Prof.; St.; B.Tech ; B.A; Mon.; ) 
> A contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A 

contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and/or bringing 

together the first and last letters or elements . (e.g: Dr.; bk; can't;they're) 
% An acronym is a word formed with the first letters of the words in the phrase.(e.g.: 

UNESCO; AIDS; SIM (card); radar) 
^ An abbreviation may be made either by omitting certain portions from the interior or 

by cutting off a part; a contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not 

necessarily a contraction. 

More exam 





Personal Assistant 



Personal Secretary / Post Script 



Business Process Outsourcing 



Knowledge Process Outsourcing 



Bachelor of Technology 



State Bank of India 



Railway Recruitment Board 




Tractor and Farm Equipment 



Tamil Nadu Small Scale Industries 



Random Access Memory 



Read only Memory 



Visual Communication 



All India Radio 



Expand the abbreviations and acronyms given below, seeking guidance wiierever 



















Read the following words aloud: 

properly - pro-per-ly 

entertainment - en-ter-tain-ment 

astronomy - as-tro-no-my 

observable - ob-ser-va-ble 

permanent - per-ma-nent 

The words when pronounced are split into syllables or units of sound, 
e.g. 1 . a - bout 2. in - side 3. peo-ple 4. mu-sic 

5. gui-ta-rist 6. pri-so-ners 7. sur-vi-val 8. in-ter-nal 

Attempt a syllabification of the following words : 
barely, fanatic, philharmonic, extravaganzaj articuiate 

Non finite verbs 

Look at these sentences taken from the speech you have just read: 

a) The society has nothing to do with entertainment. 

b) One of the first cultures to articulate how music really works was that of the 
ancient Greeks. 

The underlined words are nonf inite verbs. They are inf initives(to + the present form 
of the verb). 


Sometimes the infinitive is used without 'to' when it is used after the verbs 
'let, make, see, hear, bid, feel, know, watch'p etc. 

Examples : 

1 . The newspapers would have us believe that music is a part of arts and 

2. The jailor let IVIessiaen compose music in the prison. 

3. The speaker made the parents realise the importance of music. 

Activity : 

A. Which of these sentences would require the 'to' with the verbs? 

1 . The crowd excitedly watched Spain take the final goal to win the Cup. 

2. The teacher wanted me submit my work within a week. 

3. We have been taught keep our classroom neat and tidy. 

4. A kind teacher always makes us learn better. 

5. My neighbour snores so loud at night that I am forced close my windows help 
me sleep . 

B. Combine the following pairs of sentences using 'too + the infinitive': 
Examples : a. Kiran is very ill. She cannot go to school today. 

Kiran is too ill to go to school today, 
b. The lid of the bottle is very tight. I cannot open it. 
The lid of the bottle is too tight to open. 

1 . He cannot learn Spanish in a week. The time is very short. 

2. Maran is tired. He cannot finish the work . 

3. Velan could not solve the problem. It was very difficult. 

4. Kothai could not drink the soup. It was very hot. 

5. Vehicles cannot enter this street. It is very narrow. 


(Verbal Nouns) or Participles (Verbal Adjectives) are also non finite verbs. Look at 

these sentences from the lesson. 

The underlined words are gerunds. 

Music has a way of finding the big pieces inside our hearts and souls. 

Music has a way of helping us figure out the position of things inside us. 


Activity : 

Rewrite the following pairs of sentences, replacing the underlined part into a phrase 
with a gerund. You can use the preposition given in brackets. 
Example ; Prem completes his honnework. Then he goes to bed. (before) 
Ans: Prem completes his homework before going to bed. 

1 . Sekar cannot be allowed to take the examination. He has to pay the fee. (without) 

2. The boys were taken to the Principal's room. Thev quarrelled with each other in 
theclass. (for) 

3. The school congratulated Nithyashree. She had won a prize at the contest. (on) 

4. I shall exempt vou. You need not take the examination. (from) 

5. He secured the first place. He worked hard. (by) 

Combine the following pairs of sentences changing one of the finite verbs into a 

participle (verb + ing): 

Example ; He resorted to music. He was able to overcome his grief. 

Ans: Resorting to music, he was able to overcome his grief. 

1. Vendhan answered the questions well. He was selected for the final round in 
the quiz contest. 

2. Malar scored high marks in the public examinations. She expects to get 
admission easily. 

3. She opened the door. She started cleaning the room. 

4. I questioned the boy. I found out the truth. 

5. The dog saw the stranger. It barked loudly. 

Prefixes and Suffixes : 

When we add suffixes or prefixes to the root words, new words are formed 

Example : quench + able =quenchable un + quenchable = unquenchable 

direct + or = director in + direct = indirect 

Activity : 
Form new words using the appropriate prefixes or suffixes: 






Negative sentences: 

Look at these sentences: 

1 . There was barely enough energy to find food and water. 

2. Nowhere else will you find a place as comfortable as this. 

3. These are negative sentences as words like 'hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom,' give 
the sentence a negative meaning. 


Rewrite the sentences given below, using the words given in bracicets: 

1 . We do not have sufficient food for all of us here, (barely ) 

2. Nathan never listens to me. (hardly) 

3. Buses do not stop here often, (seldom) 

4. He does not come late to school, (scarcely) 

5. Rajan writes to his mother only once in three months, (rarely) 

Listening Skill : 

Listen to the following poem: 

The boy stood on the burning deck, 

Whence all but him had fled; 

The flame that lit the battle's wreck 

Shone round him o'er the dead. 

Yet beautiful and bright he stood, 

As born to rule the storm; 

A creature of heroic blood, 

A proud though childlike form. 

The flames rolled on; he would not go 

Without his father's word; 

The father, faint in death below. 

His voice no longer heard. 

Some words are given in the tabular column. Now listen to the poem and fill in the 

blanks with the rhyming words: 

deck- ; -fled; stood- ; 

storm - ; go - ; word - ; 

The teacher reads the poem aloud, a second time. 


>=> Listen to the word 'heroic'. 

<=> Note that the word 'hero' is pronounced with an elongated 'o'. But when the 

suffix - 1c' is added to 'hero' the pronunciation differs. It is heroic- he'roic. 
>=> Consider the word 'wreck.' The letter 'w' is silent . Can you recollect two other 

familiar words beginning with 'w' where the letter 'w' is silent? 
<=> Which letter is silent in the words 'born', 'storm', 'word', 'heard'? 
<=> Listen to the poem and guess what might have happened to Casablanca. 

Speaking Skill : 
Role Play 

1 . In India too, we had a terrorist attack a few years ago. It was at the Taj Hotel in 
Mumbai. Imagine you were a guest at the Hotel and had escaped the attack. How 
would you describe your escape? You could also build a tele - conversation with 
your friend describing your predicament. 

2. List out the various situations in your life as a student in Std X, where you may need 
music to help you overcome your fear, sorrow, disappointment, anxiety etc. 
Contrast it with occasions wherein you resort to music when you are in a 
jubilant mood. 

Reading Skill: 

The Falling Man 
"The Falling Man" is a nickname 
given to a man who fell from the North 
Tower of the World Trade Center during 
the September 11 attacks in New York 
City, and is also the title of a photograph, 
magazine story and documentary film 
about the incident. The photo was taken 
by Richard Drew at 9::41:15 a.m. on 
September 11 , 2001 . The story, written by 
Tom Junod, appeared in the September 
2003 issue of Esquire magazine, and was 
later made into a film. 



The subject of the image - whose identity remains uncertain, although 
attempts have been made to identify him - was one of the people trapped on the upper 
floors of the skyscraper who apparently chose to jump rather than die from the fire and 
smoke, while the buildings collapsed. As many as 200 people jumped to their deaths; 
there was no time to recover or identify those who jumped prior to that. Officially, all 
deaths in the attacks except those of the hijackers were ruled to be homicides (as 
opposed to suicides), and the New York City Medical Examiner's Office stated that it 
does not classify the people who fell to their deaths on September 1 1 as "jumpers": ("A 
'jumper' is somebody who goes to the office in the morning prepared to commit 
suicide. .). These people were forced out by the smoke and flames or blown out." 

This picture is somewhat deceptive; it gives the impression that the man is 
falling straight down. In reality, this is just one of a dozen photographs of his fall. In the 
other photos, it is evident that he is tumbling through the air out of control. 

Five years after the attacks, Jonathan Briley, a 43-year-old employee of the 
Windows on the World restaurant, was identified by chef Michael Lomonaco as The 
Falling Man. Briley was a sound engineer who lived in Mount Vernon, New York and 
worked in the North Tower restaurant. According to the film, the victim was initially 
identified by his brother in the morgue by the victim's hands and shoes. Lomonaco 
claims that he was able to identify Briley by his clothes and body-type. In one of the 
pictures. The Falling Man's clothes were blown away, revealing an orange undershirt 
similar to the shirt that Bhiey wore to work almost every day. His older sister, 
Gwendolyn, asserted he was wearing that shirt on the day of the attack. However, the 
identity of The Falling Man has never been officially confirmed. 

Answerthe following quQstions; 

1 . What does 'The Falling Man' refer to? 

a) the fall of the Early Man b) a popular poem 

c) a film depicting a man's fall on Sep. 11 

d) the fall of a person from his powerful position 

2. Why weren't the deaths of the hijackers considered homicides? 

3. Was the man jumping headlong or falling from the Tower? Give reasons for 
your answer. 


4. People who fell to their deaths on September 11 are not 'jumpers'. Why? 

5. How is the victim's identity revealed in the film? 

6. What clothing would Briley usually wear to work? 

7. Who is The Falling Man, according to official sources? 

Writing Skill : 

Are you idiomatic? Here are some idioms associated with music: 

1 . to face the music - to answer for the consequences of one's actions 

2. to harp on the same string - to make the same point over and over again 

3. to strike a chord - to remind one of something; a feeling of instant rapport 
with others 

4. to sing someone's praises - to speak very highly of someone 

5. to make a song and dance about- to make an unnecessary fuss about 

6. to beat the drum -to spread the news, support enthusiastically 

7. to play second fiddle -to be treated low /hold a position of less importance 

Complete the following sentences with these idioms : 

1 . If you do something really good for the world, future generations will . 

2. I don't agree with you on this matter. So don't . 

3. If we don't complete the work by tomorrow we will have . 

4. The President's frank speech with the audience. 

5. Most of the students for the Student Leader's college campus 


6. He left the company as he did not want to the new manager. 

7. it's natural to feel uncomfortable when there is a power-cut during a storm. So 
don't . 

Tabulating Data : A Beautiful Mind 

Robert Schumann(1810-1856), whose 200^^ birth anniversary is being 
celebrated throughout the world, was a great musician and holds a unique place in the 
stream of classical music. As a pianist, he tried out an experiment with the fourth 
finger of his right hand and lost it forever. That ended his hopes of a career as a 
pianist. He inherited his inclination towards the arts from his father who was a librarian 
and ran a bookshop. No wonder Schumann had a great love for books too. 


Schumann not only had a beautiful mind but also a gentle nature. He would have been 
embarrassed to see his birthday being observed internationally. He was helpful to 
other composers, contemporaries such as Chopin and Brahms and predecessors 
including Beethoven and Schubert. He wrote about them in his music magazine, The 
New Music Journal', of which he was the editor. Unfortunately his strange mental 
condition caused his death and the world lost a genius and an excellent composer of 

(Courtesy- The Hindu, May 21 , 2010) 

Arrange in a tabular column the various traits of the person with a 
beautiful mind. 




Noble qualities 

Write a letter to your friend describing your reaction to the various acts of 
violence you are aware of. 

You have read the awful destruction caused on September 11,2001, in the 
U.S.You might have heard of many such terrorist acts in our country.ln groups, 
discuss the evils of terrorism, suggesting ways to curb and eradicate it from society. 
You could refer to the library or browse the Net and gather information on POTA- 
Prevention of Terrorists Act .After the discussion and reference work, write an essay 
of 1 50-200 words on "End the terror,End terrorism". 


1 . You are at the Railway Station. There is the following announcement at the station., 
An old man. who does not know English wants you to explain the situation to him 
in Tamil. Translate the lines for his benefit. 

"The next train to Beach will arrive at Platform No 1 in fifteen minutes' time. 
Passengers are requested to bear with the delay." 


2. Translate the following newspaper excerpt into Tamil: 

Government Music College , Chennai 

The necessity to preserve, transn^iit and propagate the rich cultural legacy left 
behind by the builders of music in the country in general and in Tamil Nadu in 
particular was felt in the year 1949. It was felt necessary that the inherited musical 
urge in our youngsters and the hoary tradition of our musical culture with its ancient 
purity could be well preserved only when opportunities have been provided to those 
who have an aptitude for learning music. 

The Central and State Government with their financial aids established the 
Central College of Karnatic Music in August 1 949. The College at first was at Rahmed 
Bagh' near Santhome and it was there for two years. Since the building could not 
accommodate all the sections, it was subsequently shifted to " Bridge House" at Adyar 
. Again owing to inadequate accommodation, the college was shifted from the "Bridge 
House" Adyar to "Brodie Castle" on Greenways Road. 

The College is functioning in the same building now, which has since been 
named as "Thendral", and has a strength of more than 600 students. In the 
beginning, there were only Vocal, Violin and Veena Sections besides general 
Musicology. Candidates with a considerable standard in music alone, were admitted 
into the two year Sangeetha Vidwan Title Course and after completion they were 
permitted to appear for the 'Sangeetha Vidwan' Title Examination conducted by the 
Director of Government Examinations, Madras. 

The students who have had their training in this college have flourished well 
as Professors or Lecturers in Music Colleges all over, and many as professional 


musicians of repute. The college has gradually been developing and new 
Departments have been introduced. Departments of IVIridangam, Nadaswaram, 
Thavil, Flute, Ghatam, Kanchira, Nattuvangam and Bharathanatyam have come 
into existence. 

Three-Year Diploma Courses in Folk Art, Bharathanatyam, Vocal and 
Instrumental Music (Violin, Veena, Mridangam, Flute, Gadam, Kanchira, Mugarsing, 
Nathaswaram, Thavil) are offered. Two-Year Post Diploma Courses in Vocal Music 
(Muthukalai Isai Kalaimani), Two- Year Diploma Courses in Nattuvangam and One- 
Year Diploma Course in Music Teachers' Training are offered here. Students from 
various countries like U.S.A., Mauritius, Ceylon, Scotland, Japan, Africa and England 
have been benefited much by being students of this unique institution. Students from 
other states also preferto join this institution only. 

Study the tabTe given below, analyse and express the informatfon vn a 

Courses offered 


Countries of Students 

3 year Diploma 


U.S.A., Mauritius, 


Ceylon, Scotland, Japan 

Vocal and Instrumental 

Africa and England 


2 year Diploma 


2 year Post Diploma 

Vocal Music 


Softly, in the dusk, a woman is singing to me; 

Taking me back down the vista of years, till I see 

A child sitting under the piano, in the boom of the tingling strings 

And pressing the small, poised feet of a mother who smiles as she sings. 

In spite of myself, the insidious mastery of song 

Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong 

To the old Sunday evenings at home, with winter outside 

And hymns in the cosy parlour, the tinkling piano our guide. 

So now it is vain for the singer to burst into clamour 

With the great black piano appassionato. The glamour 

Of childish days is upon me, my manhood is cast 

Down in the flood of remembrance, I weep like a child for the past. 

- D. W. Lawrence 
Glossary : 

1. vista- a view, range 

2. insidious- spreading gradually or without being noticed 

3. hymns- songs in praise of God 

4. cosy-comfortable and safe 

5. parlour-a room in a private house for sitting in, for entertaining visitors 

6. clamour-to shout loudly in a confused way 

7. appassionato-a particular piece of music considered by Beethoven 
to be his most tempestuous piano sonata 

8. glamour -attraction 


Thinking about the poem: 

1 ) The child mentioned by the poet is . 

a) the poet's child b) a child on the roadside 

c) the poet himself d) the singer's child 

2) The poet had spent his Sundays . 

a) playing games b) singing hymns 

c) sleeping d) weeping 

3) What is the poet reminded of on hearing the woman's song? 

4) What does the poet relish more-his manhood days or his childhood days? 

5) Identify the rhyme scheme of the poem. 

6) Which tense is used frequently in the poem? What effect is brought out by this 

7) 'Onomatoepia' refers to words which sound similar to the noise they describe. 
For example 'The crow caws' : 'the thunder rumbles .' 

Pick out two onomatoepic words from the poem. 

8) Pickout a line which contains an alliteration. 

9) ' my manhood is cast down in the flood of remembrance'. 

Choose the right answer : 

The figure of speech in this line is . 

(a) simile (b) metaphor (c) personification 

10) While listening to a passionate song amidst total silence, our memory takes us 
to some incident of the past. Share with the class any such personal 
experience you have had in your life. 

Answer in a paragraph : 

What are the poet's reminiscences about his childhood days? 

Group Activity : 

Divide yourselves into two groups according to your preference - fast or slow 
music and give your responses to the questions given below: 

1 . What is the effect of the music of your choice(fast/slow) on you? 

2. Why do you prefer such music? 

3. Do you think your preference is better than the other? Why? 




I can remember like yesterday the 
day my father come home from the war. A 
flying officer during World War II , he was 
dressed in a blue uniform with a skinny, boat- 
shaped cap plonked so precariously on the side 
of his head that I wondered why it never fell off. 

A neighbour called out," What's the 
weather like up there?" as my giant-like father 
bounded by, carrying a battered brown suit case, strapped together with a large 
leather belt. Hewas, without question, the tallest man I had ever seen. 

As he walked up the front path of our home, he saw Mum and me standing on 
the veranda and he dropped the suitcase. The belt came undone and the contents 
spilled out onto the lawn. 

I was only five years old at the time so Dad made quite a fuss of me, then began 
making an ever bigger fuss of my mother. This left me free to examine all the stuff lying 
around the broken suitcase, which was mainly clothes and shoes and things, but I 
was quick to notice a large newspaper advertisement displaying a new piano. When 
Dad saw me holding up the newspaper cutting, his face broke into a grin. "Yes, that's 
right", he said. "I bought your mum a piano." Mum squealed with delight. 

Afew moments later, a large horse clip-clopped up the road, pulling a cart with 
a brand-new piano perched majestically on top. In no time at all, the delivery men had 
positioned the piano near the window of our small living room, and we all stood back 
and stared at this magnificentpiece of furniture. 

Mum had never even been close to a piano before, except at the Catholic 
kindergarten I attended, and she used to say how wonderful it would be if the nuns 
could teach her to play. She was beside herself with excitement and Dad was tickled 
pink with the way she was carrying on. 


After tea that night, Mum began to teach herself to play. She plinked and 
plonked the keys for about two hours and drove everybody in the street mad, until Dad 
gently said, "Enough is enough." From that day on. Mum became obsessed with her 
piano. Every day she would plink and plonk between doing the cooking and 
housework. Within a month she was belting out a tune, to the amazement of 
everybody in the street. Needless to say. Dad was as pleased as Punch with Mum's 
tenacity and her obvious talent. 

Three months went by and Mum was now practically an accomplished pianist, 
holding sing along parties in our lounge with all the neighbours gathering around to 
croon "She'll be Coming Round the Mountain" and "Goodnight Irene" Although we 
were poor. Mum felt like a princess and was delighted at all the attention she was 

At the height of Mum's happiness, however, I began to notice that Dad was 
moping around the house and looking increasingly sad and worried. It turned out 
that, since returning from the war, he'd been unable to find a job. At the time I was too 
young to understand why anyone would get sad and worried about that, because I 
thought I would be as happy as a cat in a fish shop to have such a long holiday. 

Then, a few weeks later, I observed the same big horse pulling a cart down our 
street and it clip-clopped right up into our driveway. Soon two men began to load 
Mum's piano onto the wagon while all the neighbours gathered around to watch. Mum 
stayed in the kitchen, sobbing. She was a proud person and couldn't bear to see her 
beloved piano sitting on top of the wagon. Dad sat out in the backyard next to the 
chicken shed, looking sadder than I had ever seen him. Suddenly, it all became clear 
to me; no job, no money to pay back the loan, no piano. 

Later that day, a couple of ladies from down the street visited our place and told 
Mum she would be as welcome as the flowers in May to come over to play their pianos 
any old time. But, of course, it wasn't the same. Mum tried not to show it, but I knew 
she missed the piano terribly. For weeks aftenA/ards she wasn't quite herself. And I 
must admit the house now seemed awfully quiet without the piano. 

Then, Dad finally got a job with an accounting firm. It was just about the best 
day ever. Mum was happy again and made such a fuss over Dad it was like he'd just 


won the lottery or something. As part of his new job, Dad had to study to qualify as a 
chartered accountant. He eagerly accepted the challenge, and every night after 
dinner he'd place a stack of books on the kitchen table and study late into the night. 
Mum didn't say much but I could tell she was proud of Dad and how hard he was trying 
to rebuild his life. Like all servicemen, he'd sacrificed a lot over the years and she 
knew it. 

I can't remember her ever mentioning the piano again after that, except for one 
time. It was a few weeks after Dad started his new job, and Mum had just finished the 
tea dishes when she came into my room and sat on my bed." Well, my baby boy," she 
said with a twinkle in her eyes, "it's just as well we got rid of that piano. How else would 
your dad be able to study with me bashing away on the ivories?" 

Two years later. Dad had saved enough money to buy Mum another Piano. 
This time he paid cash for it. 

(Adapted from The Reader's Digest-Jan-2008) 

/^ Glossary : 


- in an unstable manner 


- produced a short sharp ringing sound on the 



- hit or struck heavily with a thud 


- sing 


- screamed in a shrill voice 


- persistence, determination 


- strike heavily 


- the keys of the piano 

tickled with pink 

- amused greatly, delighted 

belting a tune 

- singing vigorously 

pleased as Punch 

- showing or feeling great pleasure or pride 


- a character in the Punch and Judy puppet 


a cat in a fish shop 

- enjoying oneself thoroughly ^ 

- onomatoepicword meaning 'entered noisily' / 


Answerthe following questions : 

1 . How did the author's father respond to his wife's interest in music? 

2. The course ofMum's life changed afterthe arrival of the piano. How? 


3. 'Practice made Mum's skill in playing the piano perfect'. Substantiate this 
statement with details from the story. 

4. What made Mum popular in the neighbourhood? 

5. Mum did not enjoy playing the neighbours' pianos. Why? 

6. Though Mum missed the piano, she faced the situation with a positive frame of 
mind. What light does it throw on her attitude? 

Answer in a paragraph : 

How did the author's mother overcome her disappointment of not being able to play 
the piano? What does it tell you about the attitude of the woman? 

In the mind map given below complete the details that are missing : 

Dad had bought 
Mum a piano 

We positioned it in 
the living room 


Mum practised and 
within a month 

All the neighbours 

They had to 


Dad was sad 


At last Dad got 

He rose in his position 
and after two years.... 


Thinking beyond the text : 

1. What makes you get excited? 

2. If you were to get an opportunity to learn something which was denied to you 
earlier, how would you react to it? 

3. How would the unemployed condition of the head of the family affect others in the 


He who knows not, and 
knows not 

That he knows not, is a 



What's the difference 
between a prince and 
a ball? 

One is heir to the 
throne and the other 
is thrown into the air. 


>=> Spoonerism is the deliberate or accidental transposition of letters 

of two or more words. 
<=> It was coined after W.A. Spooner who made such errors in 

speech. He once said, 
>=> "It was easy for a camel to go through 'the knee of an idol ' " 

instead of saying 'through the eye of a needle '. 





Pre - Reading Activity : 

1 . Who advises you the most? 
a) Father b) Mother c) Teachers d) Friends 
2. How do you react to the advice? 
Words of wisdom remain valuable through generations, unaffected by the changes 
that take place in the world from time to time. Read this extract of an address that 
serves well to heed even after a hundred years! 

Gopala Krishna Gokhale was a great freedom fighter of our country. He 
delivered a speech in response to the address presented to him by students, on 25^^ 
July 1 91 1 at an open air public meeting near Victoria Hall, Mumbai. 


My first duty on rising is to tender my most 

rising - replying (in context), 

tender (v) - offer 

sincere and grateful thanks to the students of Madras 

for their address which they have just now presented 

to me. . . There is no doubt whatever in my mind that if I 

could now go back once again to the days of my studenthood, I would do so at once 

with pleasure. The life of a student is, comparatively speaking, a sheltered life. There 

are, of course, certain responsibilities; they are definite and they are assigned to you 

by those who are willing to take care of you and there is not much need to be 

constantly exercising your own judgments. You know that in later life the position is 

reversed; instead of others helping you, you have in the first place to help yourself... 

Gentlemen, because this is the happy part of your life, there are certain 

responsibilities attached to it which must be well discharged by you, because no 

privilege in life is worth having, unless it is attended 

by corresponding duties and there are certain duties, 

which those who placed you in your present 

privileged position expect you to perform. 

1 . Which period of life does Gokhale consider a very happy one? 

2. Are students free of responsibilities? 


discharged - carried out 
privilege (n) - special right , 

privileged (adj) - prestigious 


I will consider these duties under four heads. First of all, the duty which you 
owe to yourselves; then there is the duty which you owe to your fellow-students; the 
third duty is the duty which you owe to those in authority over you, and the last duty is a 
duty which you owe to those who are around you, not students, but people of the wider 

Duty to yourselves 

The duty to yourself is twofold. You have first of all to lay by a stock of 
knowledge that will suffice you not sincerely for your examinations but will be helpful 
to you in later life. Knowledge is an exacting mistress; she needs devotion, whole- 
hearted, on the part of the person who seeks her. Such whole-hearted devotion is 
possible only in the days of studenthood. Therefore, the ^ 

first part of the duty towards yourselves is to take the suffice - be enough for, 

be adequate for 
utmost advantage of your present position, to lay by a exacting - demanding 

stock of knowledge that will be useful to you in later life. ^ — — ^ 

Importance of character 

But it is not merely knowledge that will help you or help any class of human beings 
by itself. Along with that knowledge there is another requisite that you must secure 
and that is character. It is almost a truism to say that more depends for success in life 
on character than on knowledge. It is an invidious thing to distinguish between 
comparative values of knowledge and character. But since both are indispensabie, I 
would urge on you that you should attach as much importance to character as to 
knowledge. This character must show itself in earnestness, in energy of action and in 
high and generous sentiments being brought to bear upon the discharge of your 
duties and in recognizing what is due to yourselves. You have to acquire a character 
which will raise the whole life of the people amidst whom you move and for whom you 
are expected to work. 

1 . What requires whole-hearted devotion? 

2. What is your primary duty towards yourself? ^ 

/truism - a statement that is 

3. How would ft help you in iaterlife? 

4. What kind of character should you acquire 
while you are a student? 

obviously true 
invidious - unjust 

indispensable - absolutely essential 
earnestness - seriousness 


As character will naturally have to act on those around you, the stronger, the 
firmer and nobler it is, the better work you will do for the country. Even if you acquire a 
fairly high character while you are at school or college; it may not always be easy to 
retain that character in the struggles of later life, because you are sure to be acted 
upon by those who are around you. But if you begin by acquiring a strong character for 
yourselves and when you in course of time, occupy the place of the present seniors, 
then the students or the younger men of the succeeding generation will find that the 
forces that act on them are more helpful for retaining a good character than possibly 
what you may be able to find today. This is the twofold duty which you owe to 
yourselves - the acquiring of knowledge (I use 'knowledge' in its widest sense) not 
only knowledge from every quarter which will be useful to you in later life - and 
acquiring character which will enable you to achieve success in whatever work you 
may take on hand. That, in brief, is the duty to yourselves. 

1 . What is the twofold duty to be acquired by students? 

2. Is character influenced by surroundings? 

Duty to fel low^students 

Your duty to your fellow-students will teach you in later life and will secure for 
you the habit of co-operation. The foundation of the habit of co-operation is really to be 
laid in our student days, because you are trained to be together in your class, and you 
cannot have it all your own way, if you want to get on with your class. Therefore, if you 
use your opportunities properly, you will know exactly how to get on with them by 
sometimes giving in to them and sometimes standing out for your own view, being 
regardful of the feelings and considerationsof other people. This habit of co-operation 
once acquired will continue with you all your life. It is not easy to acquire it in later life if 
you have not already acquired it in your student days. 

Duty to parents and teachers 

Your third duty is towards those in authority over you. Obedience to parents, 
especially during the time of studenthood and reverence for teachers while you are 
studying under them - these are two of the most essential conditions necessary for 
acquiring knowledge and for taking the fullest advantage of those opportunities which 
are placed within your reach while you are students. 


What are the two valuable qualities to be practised by you as students? 

While you are young men and students, while parents have to care for you and 
find means wherewith to enable you to prosecute your studies, it is necessary that 
their wishes should prevail with you in all matters, but when once your education is 
completed, and the struggle of life commences and when you are able to stand on 
your own legs, you owe it to yourselves and to your country, that you should use your 
ownjudgementastowhatworkyou should do. 
When does one make decisions of his own? 

prosecute - continue, pursue 

subordinates (v) - treats as of lesser 

Reverence towards teachers 

In the same way you owe reverence to your teacher while you are at school or 
college. Unless your whole attitude in the college and the school is founded upon a 
proper feeling of reverence for the teacher, you will miss one of the principal lessons 
of the school or college life, viz., the appreciation of discipline. Remember that in later 
life, along with the spirit of co-operation, what you will need most and what you need 
most in public life is a true spirit of discipline - the true spirit of that discipline which 
voluntarily subordinates your judgement, your convenience and personal gain to 
common good. Unless you acquire this habit 
at school or college, it will not be possible for 
you to acquire it in later life. 

1 . What is the precious virtue obtained out of reverence to the teachers? 

2. How would you define the true spirit of discipline? 

Duty to government 

In addition to that, you owe a duty to the 

rulers, the Government which is the supreme 

authority over us all. Students with their generous mind and unsophisticated hearts 

naturally fall an easy prey to stirring up emotion. But that very circumstance unfits 

them in some instances to exercise independent judgement on current affairs. In 

any case, as long as they are students, not standing on their own feet, it is not their 

business to do so. While they are students, their attitude towards the Government of 

the country, such as it may be good, bad or indifferent, should be one of 

acquiescence, loyal acquiescence. acquiescence - acceptance 

without protest 



- simple,natural 


- does not suit 


- victim 

You should do nothing whereby your relations with the authorities will be disturbed. 
You should, no doubt, study public questions, but wait for your time. But while you are 
students you should give no cause to anybody to say that your attitude towards the 
authorities is one of greater or less hostility. 

1 , What makes students give way to emotions easily? 

2. What should be the students' attitude towards the government? 

Duty to wider world 

The last duty that you owe to those who are in the wider world is to acquire a 
knowledge of their needs, observe their condition and observe their struggle, and to 
acquire an attitude to mind, so as to sympathise with those who are struggling, even 
though you are not immediately able to give them redress. There is a great deal of 
injustice and suffering in the wider world which requires to be 
remedied and when it comes to you to play the part of grown-up men, 
it is expected you will contribute your share to remove these things. In 
I the meantime you must not enter the wider world without knowledge. 
Observe and study the conditions carefully, as you are 
bound to do. 

redress - compensation 

Reflecting on the Text : 

1 . As a student, how do you identify yourself 
with the audience (the gathering of 
students) who listened to Gokhale's 

2. Do you have a sheltered life? Give reasons 

Such as thy words are, 
such will thine affections be 
esteemed; and such as thine 
affections, will be thy deeds; and 
such as thy deeds will be thy life 


for your answer. 

3. Prepare a list of all the responsibilities you nowface as a student. 

4. Will acquisition of knowledge alone help you achieve success in life? Why? 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . How is character important in life? 

2. What are the various duties of a student? Describe any two duties of a student 
as pointed out by Gokhale. 


Think of the following situations: 

1 . A computer wizard hacks into others' mail and gains information on their personal 
affairs (credit card number, family background, etc.) Then the intruder makes 
purchases online through someone else's account. Do we appreciate the person 
for his technical expertise? 

2. A student who always stands first in class has a habit of stealing from his 
classmates. Would you look up to him? 

3. Is there a possibility of you becoming a thief when you live among thieves? 
Consider the saying, 'Birds of a feather flock together". 

4. Narrate some incidents that had happened in your school life, wherein you had 
had the chance of learning and practising co-operation. 

5. Make a listofthe 'do's and 'don'ts' laid down by:- i)yourparents ii) your teachers. 







6. How do you practise discipline i) in school? ii)at home? 

7. Are you affected by the injustice you see around you? Cite any one such incident, 
which invoked your sympathy towards the person subjected to injustice (on your 
way to school, on the street, at home, etc. You yourself may have been treated 
unjustly by someone, somewhere, sometime). 


Vocabulary : 

Here are a few words that describe the attitudes of people. Also listed below 
are some situations/persons you would associate the words with. Match the items 

fhelpful, sympathetic, co-operative, headstrong, obedient J 

a. Rahim always takes the neighbour's children to school on his way to the bus-stop. 
He is . 

b. Raghav always establishes his views firmly. He refuses to listen to others. He 
never changes his opinion. He can be termed . 

c. Robert's friend Nazeer is weak in solving problems. Every evening Robert sits with 

him and teaches him to work out difficult problems. Robert is towards 


d. Class X A is very with their teachers. All the students 

are and are interested in team-work. 

Here are some synonyms associated with the attitudes listed below. With the 
help of a dictionary* try to com plete the words: * 







Notice the use of the word 'tender* in the lesson. 

>=> 'My first duty is to tender my thanks'. Here 'tender' means - 'offer*. It functions 

as a verb. 
>=> The word 'tender' as a noun, has a different meaning. 
"=> It refers to 'a person who looks after something' -eg. a bartender. 
=> It might mean a formal offer to supply goods or carry out work at a stated price. 

(The tender was rejected.) 
"=> As an adjective 'tender' means soft or delicate. 













!=> Refer to the dictionary and find out the other meanings of the word 'tender*. 

>=> Similarly 'discharge' has different meanings when used as a 'noun' and 

as a 'verb'. 
Match the sentences in Column A with the meanings of 'discharge' in Column B. 




The patient has been discharged 
from hospital 

fired unintentionally 

The wound hasn't healed; there is 
still some discharge 


She discharges her responsibilities - 

given permission officially to 

The rivers discharge into the Bay of - 


The rifle was discharged accidentally - 

performs duties 

Phrasal Verbs / Phrase Prepositions: 

Look at these sentences taken from the lesson you have Just read : 

1 you will know exactly how to get on with them (the other students) by 

sometimes giving in to them and sometimes standing out for your own view. 
2. You have first of all to lay by a stock of knowledge 

get on - have a friendly relationship (with), cope with 

give in - yield 

stand out - continue to resist 

lay by - keep for future use 

Guess the meaning of the phrasal verbs given below, making use of the 
balloons which contain their meanings : 
give up 

lay over 
get back 
stand back 

ve back 

S aloof, 



The grid contains the antonyms of some of the words you came across in the 
reading passage. Can you locate them? 

(indispensable, tiard, obey, public, true, whole, discipline, most, imnriediately, helpful, 
expected, remember, later, reverence) 





















































































































Grammar : 

Phrases and Clauses : 

Identify the phrases and clauses in the following sentences: 

a. in spite o-f the rain, the match continued. 

b. iHave belief in what you do. 

c. You shouid sympathise with those who are struggling. 

d. You must not enter the wider world without l<nowledge. 

e. If you use your opportunities properly, you will be successful in life. 


Types of sentences : 

A sentence that has only one main clause and any number of subordinate clauses, is 

termed a complex sentence. 

'Acquire knowledge which will be useful to you in later life.' 

In the above sentence, '(you) acquire knowledge' is the main clause as it gives 

complete meaning on its own. 

„- 'which will be useful to you in later life'\s the subordinate clause, as it depends 

upon the main clause to get the complete meaning conveyed. 

Consider the sentence: 

The responsibilities are definite and they have been assigned to you. 

The above sentence contains two main clauses connected by a conjunction. 
The responsibilities are definite - Main clause 1 

They have been assigned to you - Main clause 2 

and - conjunction 

Such sentences, in which two or more main clauses are connected by means of 
conjunction(s), are called compound sentences. 

Look at these sentences : 

a) I would like to buy that silk saree, 

b) I would like to buy that saree made of silk. 

c) I would like to buy that saree which is made of silk. 

In sentence (a) you find the word (adjective) 'silk' describing the saree. 
In sentence (b) there is a group of words which describes the saree. 

=> This group does not contain a verb. Here you have a phrase (adjectival) 

'made of silk' describing the saree. 
"=> In sentence (c) the group of words describing the saree contains a finite verb (is). 

We also find the conjunction 'which'. Here you have a clause (adjective/relative). 
!=> Sentence (c) is a complex sentence. Can you guess what type of sentences (a) 

and (b) are? You are right! They are simple sentences as they contain only one 

main clause, i.e. a single finite verb. 
!=> Asentence which contains only one finite verb is a Simple sentence. 


Classify the following into Simple^ Complex and Compound sentences: 

a) There is another requisite that you must secure along with knowledge 

b) Such whole-hearted devotion is possible only in the days of studenthood. 

c) Your duty will teach you much and will secure for you the habit of co-operation. 

d) That, in brief, is the duty to yourselves. 

e) In addition to that you owe a duty to the rulers. 

f) The third duty is the duty which you owe to your fellow students. 

Relative Clauses: 

Observe the f off owing sentences : 

a. My first duty. . . is to tender thanks. . . for their address which they have Just now 
presen ted to me. 

b. ... they are assigned to you by those who are willing to take care of you, 
=> The underlined parts of the sentences are called relative clauses. 

!=> In sentence a) the clause tells us more of the address. 

"=> In sentence b) the clause speaks of the nature of (those) people. 

>=> The clauses begin with the relative pronouns 'which' and 'who'. 

The relative clauses in a) and b) above are called defining, because they give 
us some essential information about the thing [ 'address' in (a)] and the 
persons['those' in(b)]. The 'address' and '(those) people are distinguished from other 
'addresses' and 'people'. 

'The particular address that has been delivered'; and 'those people who wish 
to take care of someone' are specifically defined/spoken of. We need this essential 
information. These clauses provide that information. Hence they are 'defining' 

Sometimes we may use the relative clauses only to give added information 
which is not really essential. These clauses are known as non - defining clauses 
and are separated from the sentences with commas. 

Example; A student of a school or college, who is responsible to himself, is also 
responsible to the society he lives in. 


Write five sentences of your own, using relative clauses. 

Join the sentences given below, choosing the correct relative pronoun 
furnished in brackets: 

1 . This is Ram. He is the leader of our class, (who/whom) 

2. My key was missing. I found it. (which/what) 

3. The performance of these students has been outstanding. They will be given 
special prizes, (whose/whom) 

4. I know the girl. She is a famous sportsperson. (whom/who) 

5. He suggested many ideas. They were not practical, (that/what) 

6. You met the actor. He is the hero ofthis movie, (whom/who) 

7. The bridge was repaired. Theywerewilling to do it. (who/which) 

8. Didyou buy the book? You saw it in the shop, (whom/which) 

Listening Skill: 

Listen to the following passage read out by your teacher and complete the 

exercise : 

It is everyone's desire to have a personality that is appreciated and admired by 
all. Personality is the combination of physical, emotional, spiritual and psychological 
aspects in a person. If you wish to enhance your personality, start by respecting 
yourself and believing in your ability to win respect from others. Have a positive 
attitude. In your interaction with others be polite and gentle, doing good to them and 
for them as far as possible. Give importance to your words. Speak only when it is 

required and is of utmost necessity. What you say has tremendous power it can 

hurt, it can heal, it can charm or it can harm. A kind word can support a person, 
motivate him and make him feel good. Be devoted and committed to your work. 

Remember you are always a learner even when you have climbed up the 
ladder of position and success. The higher you reach the 
more humble you should be. The meaning of life is to 
grow, but grow with changes for the better. Your 
personality shows when you have a positive outlook, the 
right communication, a commitment to work, the will to 
serve others and humble acceptance of success. 


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences : 

1. Personality is the combination of physical, , spiritual and 

aspects of a person. 

2. We should have a attitude to everything. 

3. We should speak only when required and when of utmost little and only 
with . 

4. Words have the power of one or discouraging one. 

5. The higheryou reach the more you should be. 

Speaking Skill : 

Address your classmates on some values, you think, essential to students. 
Listen to the speech of some great orators. Then try to express in your own 
words the ideas you had heard. 

1 ) Inaugural address of Barrack Obama 

2) Speeches of Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Nehru and other personalities 

3) Verses from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar - 'Friends, Romans, 
Countrymen ' 

Reading Skill: 

You would be greatly amused to read the story of the highly coveted FIFA 
football trophy. Here is a passage on it. Read the passage and supply answers 
to the questions that follow: 

>=> It weighs a little more than 5kg and it measures 36.5cm vertically. 
>=> It is made of 1 8 - carat gold and has a base, 1 3 cm in diameter, 
^ Containing two layers of malachite which is a precious mineral. 
>=> Two human figures holding up the earth are depicted on this 

^ Holy Grail of football- the FIFA World Cup trophy. 

It is a Cup every nation on the world map would love to lay its hands on. 

The World Cup football tournament owes its creation to the zeal of two French 
administrators Jules Rimet and Henri Delaunay. It is little wonder then that a French 
sculptor- Abel Lafleur- was asked to craft the trophy to be awarded to the winners of 
the inaugural World Cup in 1930. Lafleur christened his baby Victory because the 


winged Greek goddess of victory, Nil<e, inspired his design. Victory, witii a weigiit of 
3.5 kg and iieigiit of 35cm, was made of solid gold on a blue base of lapis lazuli. It 
comprised an octagonal cup, supported by a winged figure representing Nike. The 
trophy was named after the FIFA President Jules Rimet in honour of the 
Frenchman's service to the game. According to FIFA's World Cup rules, a team 
winning the tournament three times would gain ownership of the trophy. Brazil did so 
in 1 970 to take home the Jules Rimet trophy. 

The Jules Rimet trophy was stolen from an exhibition at Westminster Central 
Hall in London four months before the 1 966 World Cup. Miraculously, the trophy was 
found wrapped in a newspaper inside a garden seven days later. It was not Scotland 
Yard that traced the coveted trophy. A mongrel named Pickles found the ultimate 
football prize while on a morning walk with its owner! Brazil reacted furiously to the 
theft, saying "it was a sacrilege that would never have been committed in Brazil where 
even its thieves loved football too much". But Brazil had egg on its face 1 7 years later 
when the Jules Rimet trophy was stolen from the National Football Federation Office 

Winners of the World Cup nowadays /fit^- #^ 
receive only a replica which is gold plated. Since ^^m^^M^mMW^^^^mM 
1974 the name of the winners and the year are \^^^^S^^wM^mM^^B^ 

engraved on the base of the trophy. FIFAmayhave ^^^S^^^^^^Sm^^ 

to commission a new trophy for the 2042 World Cup 
because the trophy has space to accommodate the 
winners and the winning years only until 2038. 

Answer the following : 

1 . The Holy Grail of football refers to 


(a) malachite (b) the FIFA trophy (c) 18 gold carrots 

(d) the picture of two human beings holding up the earth 

2. The phrase 'lay its hands on' means . 

(a) to steal (b) to grab (c) to secure (d) to give away 

3. Victory owes its name to . 

(a) lapis lazuli (b) Jules Rimet (c) the Greek goddess Nike (d) a Greek bird 


4. Jules Rimet was an eminent personality . 

(a) in the political arena (b) in cine field 

(c) in diamond trade (d) in the patronage of football 

5. Pickles is the name of 

(a) an officer from Scotland Yard (b) a dog on a morning walk 

(c) the sculptor of the trophy (d) the captain of the Brazilian team 

6. The thieves of Brazil 

(a) loved the trophy (b) loved their country 

(c) loved football intensely (d) despised football 

7. Pick out the phrase from the passage which means 'had to face shame'. 

8. Why would FIFA need a new trophy for the World Cup tournament in 2042? 

Writing Sl^ill : 

Test your knowledge of idioms : 

1 . drag up a child- bring up a child without proper training 

2. done to a turn - extremely well done 

3. drop out - cease to complete 

4. drop-outs - those who withdraw 

5. exact from - demand and get from 

6. feather in one's cap - something one may feel proud of 

7. follow something up - pursue 

8. heart and soul - completely, with utter dedication 

Advertisement writing: 

You have already practised writing an advertisement in Std.lX. 

Advertisements are techniques used to promote business and trade. The more 
attractive they are, the more popular the product becomes. 

Look at the advertisement given below : 


Kids, Toddlers and Pranksters ! Rush in, Swarm inl 


Toys, toys all over ! To play with, to enjoy, to have fun with I 

Colourful ones, novel, made of non-toxic material, 
handy, easy to operate, safe to use, they tempt you to buy 

Pick and choose from a wide variety 

Available at Guild of Service Hall, Egmore, Chennai-8. 

You find that the advertisement above has some catchy words and 

i) Colourful toys, novel, lovely, safe to use, non-toxic, handy 

ii) 1 0% Discount, sale for 3 days only 

iii) Venue: Guild of Service Hall, Egmore, Chennai-8 

Creating Ads are Fun! 

These make the product interesting and appealing to the customer. 

Advertisements should be for a product, a place, an institution or any 
commercial organisation. 


1. Here are some details about a commercial organisation. Prepare an 
advertisement bringing out its best features. 

Mouth watering, Delicious food, Hygienic preparation, affordable price, makes 

you long for more and more. 

Crave and Rave Vegetarian Restaurant, 23, Nehru Street, Coimbatore. 

2. Prepare advertisements for the following products using the appropriate 

a) Long lasting pens for examinations 

b) Newly invented vehicle 

c) Latest model electronic gadget 





If you can dream and not make dreams your master; 
If you can think and not make thoughts your aim; 
If you can meet with triumph and disaster; 
And treat those two impostors just the same; 

If you can force your heait, and nerve, and sinew 
To serve your turn long after they are gone; 
And so hold on when there is nothing in you 
Except the will which says to them, "Hold on". 

If you can fill the unforgiving minute 
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run. 
Yours is the earth and everything that's in it. 
And, what is more, you'll be a man, my son. 

- Rudyard Krpling 

Thinking about the poem : 

1 . How can dreams become masters? 

2. When something you had expected fervently had not materialised, how 
did you react? 

3. What keeps one going on, in spite of being repeatedly confronted with failures? 

4. Which quality would you consider is most essential for man in order to face the 
challenges of life? 

5. Memorise the poem and write it in its verse form with proper punctuations. 

Answer in a paragraph : 

Describe the various qualities of manliness. 

Appreciation of the poem : 

1 . Which word is frequently repeated in the poem? How is it significant? 

2. In stanza 1, we find the rhyme scheme ab ab. Is this applicable to the 
remaining two stanzas too? 


3. Describe the two impostors mentioned in the poem. Why are they termed so? 

4. What would you identify as the differences between a boy and a man from your 
study of this poem? 



They err who measure life by years, 

With false or thoughtless tongue; 
Some hearts grow old before their time; 

Others are always young. 

Tis not the number of the lines 

On life's fast-filling page, 
Tis not the pulse's added throbs, 

Which constitute their age. 

Some souls are serfs among the free. 

While others nobly thrive; 
They stand just where their fathers stood, 

Dead, even while they live. 

Others, all spirit, heart and sense, 

Theirs the mysterious power 
To live in thrills of joy or work. 

A twelve-month in an hour! 

Seize, then, the minutes as theypassi 

The woof of life Is thought! 
Warm up the colours! let them glow 

With fire of fancy fraught. 

Live to some purpose; make thy life 

A gift of use to thee; 
A joy, a good, a golden hope, 

A heavenly argosy 

- Adelaide Anne Proctor 



- Bonnie Chamberlain 

An old priest told me this story when I was very young. I 
have since wondered many times where it came from. No 
one has been able to tell me. 

Centuries ago a great artist was engaged to paint a 
mural for the cathedral in a Sicilian town. The subject was 
the life of Jesus. For many years the artist laboured 
diligently, and finally the painting was finished except for 
the two most important figures; the Child Jesus and 
Judas Iscariot. He searched far and wide for models for 
those two figures. 

One day while walking in an old part of the city he came upon some children 
playing in the street. Among them was a twelve year old boy whose face stirred the 
painter's heart. It was the face of an angel-a very dirty one, perhaps, but the face he 
needed. The artist took the child home with him, and day after day the boy sat 
patiently until the face of the Child Jesus was finished. But the painter still found no 
one to serve as model for the portrait of Judas. For years, haunted by the fear that his 
masterpiece would remain unfinished, he continued his search. 

The story of the unfinished masterpiece spread afar, and many men fancying 
themselves of wicked countenance, offered to pose as models for the face of Judas, 
but in vain. The old painter looked for a face that would serve to show Judas as he 
had envisioned him: a man warped by life, enfeebled by surrender to greed and lust. 

Then one afternoon, as he sat in the tavern over his daily glass of wine, a gaunt 
and tattered figure staggered across the threshold and fell upon the floor. 'Wine, 
wine,' he begged. The painter lifted him up, and looked into a face that startled him. It 
seemed to bear the marks of every sin of mankind. Greatly excited, the old painter 
helped the profligate to his feet. 


'Come with me,' he said, 'and I will give you wine, and food and clothing.' Here 
at last was the model for Judas. For many days and part of many nights the painter 
worked feverishly to 
complete his masterpiece. 
As the work went on, a 
change came over the 
model. A strange tension 
replaced the stuporous 
languor, and his bloodshot 
eyes were fixed with horror 
on the painted likeness of 

One day, perceiving 
his subject's agitation, the 
painter paused in his work. 
'My son, I'd like to help you', 
he said. 'What troubles you so?' 

The model sobbed and buried his face in his hands. After a long moment he 
lifted pleading eyes to the old painter's face. 


Judas Iscariot- 

one of the twelve apostles of 

Jesus, who betrayed Jesus 

for thirty pieces of silver 


painting done on a wall 


showing care and effort 

countenance - 

face, appearance 


became distorted 


made weak or feeble 


inn or public house 


made thin by hunger or illness 


shamelessly immoral person 

stuporous - 

dazed by shock 


tiredness or laziness of mind 

and body 

'Do you not then remember me? Years ago I was your model for the Child 


Comprehending the text : 

1 . Why did the painting remain unfinished? 

2. Who served as a model for the Child Jesus? 

3. The painter rejected all the offers he got from men to pose as Judas. Why did 
he do so? 

4. There was a terrible change in the behaviour of the model while he posed as 
Judas. Whatwasthe reason for this? 

5. Trace the transformations in the model's life from his childhood into youth. 

6. Would you consider the story as ironical? What is the twist in the story? 


Choose the best option for the following questions : 

1. The artist was painting . 

a) the life of Judas Iscariot b)the life of a young man 
c) the life of an aged nnan d) the life of Jesus 

2. The model for the Child Jesus was . 

a) six years old b) twelve years old 

c) fourteen years old d) an infant 

3. The villainous model the artist sought was . 

a) difFicult to find b) readily available 

c) located easily d) unwilling to pose for him 

4. The young man who approached the artist begged for . 

a) money b)wine c)food d) clothes 

5. The model was actually . 

a) the artist's son b) one who posed for the Child Jesus 

c) angry with the artist d) tortured by the artist 

Answer in a paragraph : 

The portrait of Child Jesus and of Judas in this story or an example of how most 
artists and authors like to show a character on the faces of the people they paint, write 
about or depict in plays. Have you seen any such painting or character in stories or in 
plays and movies? Describe their appearance in a paragraph. 

Points for Discussion : 

1 . Do such persons as the model in the story, exist in real 
life? Try to give some examples from fiction, or from 
any other source you have read or heard. 

2. Do you think the model regretted the happenings in 
his life? Analyse whether he had the inclination to 
reform in life. 

Parallel Reading: 

Stories with an ironical twist 

^ 'The Ant and the Grasshopper' by Somerset Maugham 
* 'The Cop and the Anthem' by O. Henry 


Face is the index of the mind! 

Here are some faces depicting different expressions. Can you identify each witii the 
expressions given in the list below : 

amused, thoughtful, hate, angry 

contempt joyful, bored, sad 


A growing gleam glowing green. 

She sifted thistles through her thlstle-sifler. 



Which is the worst kind of driving school? 

One that offers crash courses. 



Pre - reading activity: 
Avaiiabiiity of water in india - A Prediction 

Here is a map of India's future water availability status. Study the map and 
answer the questions that follow. 


• Droughts 

• Flash Fioods 

• Melting of Giaciers 

• Food Insecurity 
In groups discuss the following 

1. How long can you, as an 
individual, stay without 

2. Can we find an alternative to 
the use of water for cleaning 
ourselves, our vessels etc.? 

3. Suppose we wish to reduce 
the use of water, which are the 
areas where we can restrict 
the use of water in our day-to- 
day activities? 

4. Do you think India has sufficient water resources for its population? 

5. Discuss how we are utilizing the water resources and whether it is possible for us 
to distribute our water resources to all parts of India. 

6. If you were given the responsibility when you grow up, to interlink all rivers, what 
are the measures you would employ? 


1 . It is not yet noon in Delhi, just 180 miles soaring : rising, increasing 
south of the Himalayan glaciers. But in the narrow scramble: struggle 

corridors of Nehru Camp, a slum in this city of 1 6 million, I — — 

the blastfurnace of the north Indian summer has already sent temperatures soaring 
past 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Chaya, the 25-year-old wife of a fortune-teller, has 
spent seven hours joining the mad scramble for water that even today defines life in 
this heaving metropolis and offers a taste of what the depletion of Tibet's water and 
ice portends. 

2. Chaya's day began long before sunrise, when ' fanned out : spread out 
she and her five children fanned out in the darkness, rumour : false story 
armed with plastic jugs of every size. After day break, the panic : fear 
rumour of a tap with running water sent her stumbling in a corridors : passages 
panic through the slum's narrow corridors. Now, with her 

containers still empty and the sun blazing overhead, she has returned home for a 
moment's rest. Asked if she's eaten anything today, she laughs: "We haven't even had 
any tea yet." 

3. Suddenly cries erupt - a water erupt : suddenly happen 
truck has been spotted. Chaya leaps up and torrent : an outpour 
joins the human torrent in the street. A dozen to swarm : to crowd onto something 
boys swarm onto a blue tanker, jamming jamming : pushing with force 
hoses in and siphoning the water out. Below, Jostle : push roughly in a crowd 
shouting women jostle for position with their 

containers. In six minutes the tanker is empty. Chaya arrived too late and must move 
on to chase the next rumour of water. 

4. More than two-thirds of the city's ' unsustainable - cannot be 

water is drawn from the Yamuna and the exodus 

Ganges, rivers fed by Himalayan ice. If that ice 
disappears, the future will almost certainly be ^^^^i. 
worse. "We are facing an unsustainable welt 

- mass movement 
from one place 
to another 

- hit 

- mark 


.situation," says Diwan Singh, a Delhi environmental activist. "Soon - not in thirty 
years but in five to ten - there will be an exodus because of the lack of water." 

5. The tension already seethes. In the clogged alleyway around one of Nehru 

Camp's last functioning taps, which run fori^ 

I melee - a situation in which a 
one hour a day, a man punches a woman ^^owd of people are 

who cut in line, leaving a purple blow on her 

brawl - a noisy and violent fight 

6. "We wake up every morning fighting over water," says Kamal Bhate, a local 
astrologer watching the melee. This one dissolves into shouting and finger-pointing, 
but the brawls can be deadly. In a nearby slum a teenage boy was recently beaten to 
death for cutting in line. 
1 . Do you know how the Himalayan glaciers are useful? 

Did you know? 

Climate change is 
now generally known as 

2, Why should Chaya hurry? .global warming' which 

3, What is a metropolis? | means the increase in the 

. .*,L ^ .. ^i_ ^ . . .r. average temperature of air 

4. Why hasn t Chaya drunk any tea as yet? ^^^ oceans 

5. What caused the commotion in the street? 

7. Climate change and diminishing water supplies could reduce cereal 
yields in South Asia by 5 percent within three decades. "We're going to see rising 
tension over shared water resources, including political disputes between farmers, 
between farmers and cities, and between human and 
ecological demands for water," says Peter Gleick, a 
water expert and President of the Pacific Institute in 

cereal - pulses 
yields - production 
decade- a period of ten years 

Oakland, California. "And I believe moreof these tensions will lead to violence." 

1 . What will be the future if the Himalayan glaciers become ice-free? 

2. What according to Diwan Singh will happen if the rivers dwindle? 

3. What does Kamal Bhate do every morning? 

4. What according to Peter Gleick will be the future when the water supplies are 

5. What can lead the world to violence? 


8. For the people in Nehru Camp, geopolitical concerns are lost in the 

frenzied pursuit of water. In the afternoon, a tap frenzied 
outside the slum is suddenly turned on, and Chaya, 
smiling triumphantly, hauls back a full, ten-gallon 
jug on top of her head. The water is dirty and bitter, pursuit 
and there are no means to boil it. 

hauls back 

involving a 
lot of activity 
that is often 
pulls back 


9. But now, at last, she can give her children their first meal of the day: a 
piece of bread and a few spoonfuls of lentil stew. 
"They should be studying, but we keep shooing 
them away to find water," Chaya says. "We have 
no choice, because who knows if we'll find enough 
water tomorrow." ' 

1 . What made Chaya triumphantly smile? 

2. What was the condition of the water? 

3. When was Chaya able to give her children their first meal of the day? 

4. What was their first meal of the day? 

a small seed, dried and 
used in cooking 
a dish of meat and 
vegetables cooked 
slowly in liquid 

Arctic to hArnmia irA-frpel 

The Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in 
less than a decade, scientists have warned, 
as the latest figures show the thickness of the 
ice cap has shrunk to a record low. 

Answer in a paragraph : 

1 . Describe the daily routine of Chaya and her family. 

2. Briefly describe the scene from the arrival of the water-tanker till its departure. 

3. What are the alarming threats foreseen by environmentalists, due to 
water scarcity? 


Thinking beyond the text : 

1 . Suggest how Chaya's water problems could be solved. 

2. What could you, as a student, do to improve water conservation in your area? 


A* Read the following descriptions and match them to the respective word in 
the cloud: 

I I cut in line 

I I melee 

I I portends 

I I siphon 

I I depletion 

1 . something that does not have enough left 

2. warns of something that is going to happen in the future 

3. a tube that is used for moving liquid from one container to 
another, using pressure from the atmosphere 

4. a situation in which a crowd of people are rushing or pushing 
each other in a confused way 

5. intervene by forcing one's way into the middle of the queue 

B. Choose the phrase that is closest to the meaning of the words and phrases 
given in italics. 

1 . The summer temperature soars pasf105°F in North India, 
a) runs forward b) grows over 

c) increases to d) flies high 

Indian summer is like ablastfurnace. 

a) space for heating solids b) cooking area 

c) fire cracker d) exploding bomb 

There will be an exodus because of the lack of water. 

a) an end to life b) mass departure of people 

c) a great famine 

d) an exciting argument 

4. This one dissolves into shouting 

a) suddenly starts 
c) disappears quickly 

b) melts into liquid 
d) grows weaker 

5. We keep shooing them away to find water. 

a) forcing someone to do something b) sending someone away 

c) providing footwear 

d) silencing someone 


C. Spellings (work In pairs): 

Form the right word from the jumbled ones given below and write your answers in the 
space provided. 








Additional Activity 

Make up some more jumbled 
spellings for your friends to 
find out the right word. 

0. Opposites : 

Choose the opposite of the words from those given in the box and write it in the space 


vvuiu^ Mniuiiyrnt) / 

nice polite generous 
narrow kind dirty 
humble local bitter 









Reading Skill: 

A. Read the passage "Will Thirst Become Unquenchable?" once again. Then 
match the captions given below with the paragraph that suits each caption. 
Write the number of the paragraph in the space provided. 

a. Warforwater 

b. Predictions for the future 

c. Ensuing exodus 

d. Earlier is always better 

e. A large mass of ice 

f. The Plight of life 

g. Times may change 


B. Read the article and answer the questions that follow : 

The Water Arithmetic 

We stare at the dregs of our ingenuity, at a resource scientifically misused. We 
are cawing alarmed. But we only keep cawing raucously at that. Let's get on, like 
the crow and fashion pebble by pebble to meet our needs. 

The source of all water on earth is not the river, is not the underground aquifer, 
is not the lake, well or stream. Rain is the source of all water. 

In India the monsoon is a deluge. Rain spatters the earth, fills ponds. Lakes 
brim. Rivers heave. But the monsoon is also brief. We receive most of its rainfall in 
just 100 hours out of 8,760 hours in a year. But this is enough to meet our water 
needs, provide food security and eradicate rural poverty. Why is Cherrapunji today 
short of drinking water, when it gets more than eleven meters of rainfall annually? 
Simply because it does not capture the rain that falls over it. 

1. What is the effect of rain on earth? 

2. What do you think can eradicate rural 

3. Match the words from the text to their 
definitions : 
















a. ability to solve problems in clever new ways 

b. the unpleasant sound that is made by crows 

c. a sudden very heavy rain fall 

d. a period of heavy rain in summer 

e. wipe out 

Now consult a dictionary to find the meaning of the words in bold. 

C. Underline the correct word. 

1. Cherrapunji people waste /save rainwater. 

2. As the car passed, it shook /spattered the rainwater. 

3. They prepare / provide clean drinking water for the party. 

4. Raja will receive/get a letter next week. 

5. People welcome / envy the monsoon. 


D. Match the give definitions and names to the pictures. 

1 . A large mass of ice floating in the sea. 

2. A passage dug out of the ground to connect two 
areas of water for boats and ships to travel between 

3. A narrow strip of water that connects two larger 
bodies of water. 

4. A great mass of soil water that covers most of the 
earth's surface. 

5. Alarge area ofwatersurrounded by land. 

6. Waterthatfallsstraightdownoveracliffbig roclc. 

7. A large mass of ice which moves slowly down a 
mountain valley. 

8. A natural and continuous flow of water in a long line 
across a country into the sea. 

9. A place where water comes up naturally from the 

a) lake b) iceberg c) canat d) geyser 
e) ocean f) waterfall g) river h) glacier 
i) strait 


E. Skim the passage and use the information you have skimmed to complete 
the mind map given below : 

The Mettur Dam 

The Mettur Dam is a large dam in India 
built in 1934. It was constructed in a gorge, 
where the river Kaveri enters the plains. The 
dam is one of the oldest in India. It provides 
irrigation facilities to a part of Salem, the 
length of Erode, Namakkal, Karur, 
Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur district for 
271, 000 acres of farm land. 

The total length of the dam is 1 700 meters. The dam has facilitated the Stanley 
Reservoir. The Mettur Hydro Electrical Power Project is also quite large. The dam, the 
park, the major Hydro Electric Power Stations and hills on all sides make Mettur a 
tourist attraction. Upstream from the dam we find the Hogennakal Falls. 

The Mettur dam is an old Multipurpose Project of the South Indian State of 
Tamil Nadu across the Cauvery river. It irrigates 1 ,310 square kilometers each year. 
Its installed capacity for hydro-power generation is 32 MW. 

lUlettur Dam 
was built in 

Length of 
the Dam 


Grammar : 

First Conditionals 

e.g. If the battery is charged the light will shine. 

If clause : 'if + present tense 
(is charged) 

Main clause : will, won't, can, 
can't, shall, shaln't, may, might 

Do yoy remenrber 

^ You use conditional clauses to 
talk about a possible situation 
and its results. 

^ Conditional clauses can begin 
with 'if 

yf A conditional clause needs a 
main clause to make a 
complete sentence. The 
conditional clause can occur 
before or after the main 

Match the following Main and 'If clauses 


If 'clause 

Main clause 

If you waste water 

he will be punished 

If you lend me some money 

1 won't be able to attend the class 

If Naveen is late 

1 shall get wet 

If the bus breaks down 

1 can buy a new car 


If it rains 

you will suffer 

Second Conditionals 

If he worked hardj he would pass. 

If clause: 'If + past tense 

Main clause: would, wouldn't, etc. 

Use the words provided and rewrite the sentences using 'if clauses. 

Look at the example to help you. 

(money / Kapoor / buy / car) If Kapoor had money, he would buy a car. 


1 . rained / Chaya / to Agra / visit 

2. rained / the plants / not wither 

3. had / Seelan / new shoes / jog faster 

4. had / Kalai / a cycle / reach school earlier 

Create more examples. 

II. Match the phrases in Column A with those in Column B: 

Example : 

If she asked me, I would help her. 

If clause : If + past tense (asked) 
Main clause: 'would' or 'wouldn't' 

You use 'If 'to denote 
events and situations 

(i) that happen often 

(ii) that may happen in the future 

(iii) that could have happened in the 

past but did not happen 
(iv) that are unlikely 

to happen 




If he studied well 

1 would buy a BMW car 


If he went late 

he would pass the exam 


If 1 won a lottery 

the dog would bite us 


If it got out of the gate 

he would not get water 


If 1 had more money 

1 would feed a lot of people 

Third Conditionals 

If I had seen the water tankers I would have swarmed to siphon at least a 
bucket of water. 

If clause : If + past perfect (had seen) 
Main clause : would have + past participle 
(would have swarmed) 


Couldn't it happen ? 

When you are talking about something which could have happened in the past 
but which did not actually happen, you use the past perfect in the conditional clause. In 
the main clause, you use 'would have' and a past participle. 

Complete the following sentences with suitable clauses : 

1 . If Raj had got enough water, 

2. Anandh would have found a job,_ 

3. If Bagya hadn't started early, 

4. James would have got a prize,. 

5. If we had saved rain water more in ponds and lakes, 

she would have been late to work 

we could have survived the drought 

if he had attended the interview 

if he had performed well 

he would have shared it with his neighbour 


Kamala lives Sundar's house is Arun's house is the 

in a big house bigger than Kamala's biggest in the street 

Look at the words in bold. These words show a difference in the size of the 
buildings, when compared one with the other. When two, or more than two things 
persons are compared, the Degrees of Comparison are used. In the sentences given 
above, the word 'big' is of the Positive Degree; ' bigger' is of the Comparative Degree 
and 'biggest' is of the Superlative Degree 






The food is getting 
















more crowded 




the service 

Keep in mind .... 

1 . Use the comparative form of adjectives to focus on a difference between people, 
places and things. 

2. Use the comparative with than when you mention the things you are compare. 

3. Use the comparative without than when it is clearwhich things you are comparing. 

4. Repeat the same comparative to talk about change - an increase or a decrease. 

5. Use a double comparative to show cause and effect. 

6. There is more than one way to form the comparative of adjectives. 


By adding 'er' 






By adding 'r' 




By doubling the final Consonants and adding 'er' 




By deleting the final y and adding 'er' 




By using 'more' (adjectives of two or more 


more difficult 


7. List of some irregular adjectives 

Complete the blanks in the columns 














most generous 




more ancient 

most intricate 

Now nfiake as many sentences as you can from the table below : 






The giri 



the boy 



he is 

Her pen 



The girl's cycle 


the boy's 






The girl 


doesn't write 


the boy 



her tutor 

Her pen 



The servant 


my mother 


Complete the sentences with as .... as and the words in brackets. 

A: My old cycle isn't 


a new one. 

Of course, it is not 

(comfortable) the new one. 

B: And it doesn't look 

(attractive) ^the new one, either. 

Keep in mind ... 

as + adjective + as => to compare people, places or things that are 

equal in some way 

just as + adjective + as => to emphasise the equality 

not as + adjective + as => to talk about two persons, places or 

things that are different in some way 


Complete the blanks with the words from the box 

1 . Ice is snow. 

2. Your words are your father's. 

as light as, just as 
expensive as, not as 
effective as 

3. My watch is 

yours, too. 

Keep in mind .... 

as + adverb + as 

=> to compare two actions 

just as + adverb + as 

=> to talk abouttwo actions that are the same or equal 


=> to talk abouttwo actions that are not the same 

as effBctively as, as fast as 

1 . This soap removes stains the other. 

2. He rides she does. 

3. Bar soap doesn't clean soap powder. 


Identify the phrase which completes the sentence and write the corresponding 
letter in the block provided: 

The new menu is _{a)_ 

the old menu. 

The new waiters are (b) old waiters. 

The cream cake is (c) the plain cake. 

The new sweets are (d) . 

It is getting (e). 

to find an inexpensive restaurant. 

The prices of vegetables are going (f) 

It is getting (g)_ 

Air-conditioners are becoming |h)^ expensive. 

(I) the queue , (i) the service. 


the restaurant 


the bill. 

richer than 


1 1 more and more difficult 

higher and higher 

1 less and less 

better than 

1 more expensive than 

The more expensive , the 

the shorter ,the faster 

harder and harder 


Think it over and tick the right answer 

y Which word always goes before the superlative form of the adjective? 
I la or an, EH the most 

X Which letters do you add to the end of a short adjective to form the 

D- er D-est 

y Which words do you add before a long adjective to form the superlative? 
I I more / less Q most / leas 

> This is beautiful sight I have ever seen. 

> The man is than the boy. 

> This pen is the expensive pen in the world. 

Suppty the correct form of the adjectives given in the brackets and complete 
the following sentences: 

1 , Use the Superlative form of adjectives to single out people, places and 
things from other people, places and things. 

2, The Superlative is often used with expressions beginning with in or of, 
such as in the world and of all. 

3, The Superlative is sometimes followed by a clause. Often the clause 
uses the present perfect with ever, 

4, There is more than one way to form the superiative of adjectives . 

Did you know? 

1 ■ What do you add to long adverbs to form the comparative? 
□ More or less n ©r or est 

2, Which word do you always add to form the superlative ? 


Points to remember 

1 . Use the comparative form of adverbs to focus on differences between actions. 

2. Use the Superlative form of adverbs to single out something about an action. 

3. Repeat the same comparative to talk about change in something or an increase 
or a decrease. 

4. Use a double comparative to show cause and effect. 

5. There is more than one way to form the comparative and superlative of adverbs 


Did you know 7 

30,000 litres of water are used to manufacture one car. 

y 4,500 litres of water are used to make one tone of steel. 

The earth has the same amount of water today as it did ten million years ago 

A r 



^ r 






y 65% 

i water 75% water 

85% water 


95% water 

Listening Skill: 

Listen to the letter read out by the teacher or played on the audio tape. As you listen 

in the table given below. 


The writer wants 

The letter is written in the month of 

The writer paid for all the 

The writer has been living there for 

Who has written the letter? Who is it written to? 

The students tisten to the foffowing letter read out by the teacher: 

Letter from a tenant asking for a reduction of rent. 

5, James Gardens, 
7'' Street, Chennai. 
28*' January, 2010 

Dear Sir, 

I am writing this to request you to consider reducing the rent for the premises 
you have rented to me. 

I have been occupying your house since 2005. All these years not once have 
I troubled you for the number of major and minor repairs I have been carrying out 
under my own expense. 

Now, however, since the water in the bore well has decreased and the motor 
and hand pump are networking, I find I am paying a rent, which is more than what my 
neighbours pay with betterfacilities in everyway. 

I shall be happy if you would either consider a reduction in rent or cancel the 
rent agreement accordingly. 

Thank you, 

Yours sincerely, 

R. Anandhan 

Address on the envelope: 


Mr. M. Vijayasarathy, 

33/ 72, Nehru Street, Chennai - 94. 


Speaking Skill ; 

You see your friend wasting water and you don't like it. Talk to your friend in 
class and explain how you feel about wasting water. 

5. Work In pairs. Ask and answer questions. 

Anu : How often do you have a shower? 

Mega : I have a shower twice a day. I use 30 litres of water. 

Ask your friends the following questions. Then note their response. 

In order to 

The quantity of water 
used . 

The quantity of water used in 
your home every day. 

run a tap 

15 litres per minute 

fill a sink 

10 litres 

fill a bucket 

8 litres 

run a shower 

10 litres per minute 

run a hose 

20 litres per minute 

cook a meal 

5 litres 

use a washing machine 

60 litres 

Address the class on your findings. 

Writing skill; 

A bunch of idioms 

1. in deep water 

2. blood is thicker than water 

3. fish out of water 


one tends to show more affection towards 

one's relations 

a person who does not fit in , out of place 


4. keep one's head above water 

5. in hot water 

6. make one's mouth water 

7. still waters run deep 

to make just enough money to 

survive, to manage 

in serious trouble 

to crave or desire something that 

one loves to eat 

never judge anything by its 


Activity : Use the above idioms in sentences of your own. 

1 . Using the points given below, prepare an article for your school magazine 
on Rain Water Harvesting. 

^ In areas where there is inadequate ground water supply or surface resources, 
either lacking or insufficient, rain water harvesting offers an ideal solution 

V Helps in utilizing the primary source of water and prevents the runoff from going in 
to sewer or storm drains, thereby reducing the load on treatment plants 

^ Reduces urban flooding 

^ Recharging water into the aquifers helps in improving the quality of existing 
ground waterthrough dilution. 



Urban rainwater harvesting 

Urban centres in India 
are facing an ironical situation 
today. On one hand there is 
the acute water scarcity and 
on the other, the streets are 
often flooded during the 
monsoons. This has led to 
serious problems with quality. 

2. Think of this situation and write a paragraph on it: 

a. IHas the area you live in ever been flooded due to heavy rains or due to 
any other man made calamity? 

b. If your area gets flooded is it possible to make your way to school ? 
What would be your mode of transport? 

c. Describe the havoc caused by floods. How would you help others in a 

3. Write some predictions about the conditions in the availability of water after 
ten years. 

4. Write an article on either of the following: 

(Good uses of water and avoiding wastage?)^ Pollution in oceans and seas ^ 

^ Organise your ideas in a variety of ways such as: 


b. an even map 
d. boxes 

^ Use logical organisers to connect sentences 
and ideas. 

^ Identify and create topic sentences. 

Remember the CODER 

^ Comprehending 
*■ Organising the points 
*" Developing a draft 
*■ Evaluating the draft 
*■ Reviewing 


Interpreting Non-verbal Presentations 
Hazards to water bodies in Sharaf s locality 

Pollution of Drinking Water Sources 

I I Batiiing cattle in river 

§ Throwing chemical wastes into lakes and rivers 

Uncovered wells 

[^ Using lakes as public toilets 

PI Washing clothes in the river 

H Draining kitchen and toilet waste water into lakes and rivers 

Sharath lives in a semi - urban area and does not get sufficient drinking water 
due to misuse of water bodies in the area. 

Fill in the blanks and know how they are misused with the help of the pie 
diagram qiven above. 

Sharath's locality has lakes and . In spite of them 

he has very little drinking water available. This is because percent of the 

lakes and rivers are used as dumping areas for chemical waste and percent is 

mixed with kitchen and toilet outflow. About of the wells thus 

allowing dry leaves and windswept rubbish to fall in. percent of lakes and 

rivers are used as and . Hence there is a rare chance of good 

water there. 





The well was dry beside the door, 
And so we went with pail and can 
Across the fields behind the house 
To seek the brook if still it ran; 

Not loth to have excuse to go, 
Because the autumn eve was fair 
(Though chill), because the fields were ours. 
And by the brook our woods were there. 

We ran as if to meet the moon 
That slowly dawned behind the trees. 
The barren boughs without the leaves, 
Without the birds, without the breeze. 

But once within the wood, we paused 
Like gnomes that hid us from the moon. 
Ready to run to hiding new 
With laughter when she found us soon. 

Each laid on other a staying hand 
To listen ere we dared to look, 
And in the hush we joined to make 
We heard, we knew we heard the brook. 

A note as from a single place, 
A slender tinkling fall that made 
Now drops that floated on the pool 
Like pearls, and now a silver blade. 

- Robert Frost 



Poetic words 

ere - before 

soon - presently 

blade - reference to the river 


loth - hate, dislike 

gnomes - dwarfs 

Answer the following questions: 

1 . Why had the speakers to go to the brook? 

2. Did the speakers enjoy the trip into the woods? What makes you say so? 

3. When did the speakers visit the woods - during the day or the night? Look for 
hints in the poem. 

4. Why did the speakers pause in the woods? Who found them soon? 

5. Why did each lay a 'staying hand' on the other? 

6. Pick out the words that describe the flow of the brook. 

7. Why is the river referred to as ' a silver blade'? 

8. How does the rhyme scheme of stanza three differ from those of stanzas 
one and two? 

9. Pick out the words in alliteration in stanza three. 

10. Memorise the third, fourth and fifth stanzas of the poem. 

Answer f n a paragraph: 

Describe the experiences of the children on their way to the brook to 
seek water. 

Thinking beyond the text: 

Do you think Chaya's children would have enjoyed going for water, as much as 
these children did? Give reasons for your answer. 




- Susannah Hickling 

The young Frenchwoman stepped out of her flooded house 
- and disappeared beneath the water 

"Come on, We've got to get out of here now", Serge urged his partner 
Celine. Flood water that had poured into their little terraced home was already 30 
centimetres deep and rising. The couple had lifted the sofa onto the dining table and 
stacked as many other possessions as they could out of the reach of the filthy water. It 
was 2:1 5 pm on Monday, September 22, 2003 and the small town of Lunel in southern 
France had been battered by violent storms since mid-morning. 

Council worker Serge, 43 and 32-year old Celine, a home help, had lived 
most of their lives in Lunel which stands only a few metres above sea level. The flat, 
marshy area, floods frequently. This was the second time in just over a year that the 
couple had found the home invaded by water. 

Serge and Celine stepped out into the street, now a fast-flowing thigh-high 
river. They waded across the road and Celine stepped over a low hedge which 
separated the street from the pavement. Serge was following close behind when he 
saw Celine fall. In an instant she had disappeared below the water. 

She's dead, he thought. It's all over. All they'll find is her body later. Celine 
felt herself being pulled under the water. Instinctively, she reached up for Serge's 
hand. She felt his grasp but her relief was short-lived as his hand slipped away. 

She couldn't understand what was happening. She was being swept along 
underwater, helpless and swallowing mouthfuls of the filthy liquid. She couldn't 
breathe. "I'm going to die", she thought. "I'm drowning. There's no way I can survive 
this". Then she found that she could breathe again. In the dim light, she could see that 
she was about ten metres from the manhole through which she had plunged, but the 
current made it impossible to swim back. 


She was in a two-metre wide concrete storm 
drain which was almost completely filled with water 
and it was still rising. Across the drain stretched a 
small plastic pipe. Further on, the tunnel was 
completely black. 

"I've got to try to grab that pipe", Celine thought. "I've 
got to keep myself as high outof the water as I can". 

Slippery though it was, she managed to grasp the pipe. With a supreme effort 
she pulled the upper part of her body out of the water and manoeuvred herself against 
the wall to stop herself being swept further along the drain. 

Above ground, Serge panicked. "Help, help!" he cried, wading as fast as he 
could to his nearest neighbour's house. "Quick! Celine's been sucked down a drain! 
I've got to go back, I've got to get her out". 

"No," said Louise Martinez, who lived opposite the couple. "We'll ring the fire 

Drenched and freezing cold, Celine hung on. Thoughts came to her almost 
like photographs. She could see her daughter Amandine turning to blow her a kiss as 
she hurried into school. "I'll never see her again", she thought. She wouldn't be there 
to celebrate Amandine's twelfth birthday in two weeks time. "No!" she said to herself. 
"I've got to be there for her. I've got to survive". 

And then there was Serge. She thought of the squabble they'd had that 
morning. Now all she could think of was that Serge would have to tell Amandine that 
her mother was dead. Howwill he tell her? she wondered. 

It didn't bear thinking about. She couldn't let it happen. "I've got to fight to the 
very end". 

The firemen finally managed to battle through the floods about an hour after 
they had received the call alerting them to Celine's disappearance. They shone 
torches down the manhole and probed with metal rods but there was no sign of the 
missing woman. 


As she hung from the pipe, Celine saw a bright 
light. It was the firemen, she realized, shining powerful 
torches down the manhole. She started tapping on the 
pipe and battering the walls with her hands and arms, "I'm 
here!" she shouted. "Come and get me out." 

She watched as the firemen lowered metal rods, and she tried hard to shout 
above the noise of the racing water. 

Then, to her astonishment and anger, the lights and rods disappeared. It was 
black now in the drain, and she felt objects smashing against her- bags, branches, 
the contents of bins, all swept away in the flood. 

Unable to feel her legs, she knew she couldn't hold on to the pipe any longer. 
I've got to do something, she thought. The water level had dropped to her chest. 

"There's got to be an exit further on", she reckoned. "All this water has got to go 
somewhere. Perhaps there's a grill". If it was shut she could be smashed to pieces 
against it, but if it was open she was free. She had to find out. 

After a while, she was able to touch the bottom of the drain with her feet. The 
pipe had narrowed. Her hopes rose until suddenly her face smashed against 
something hard protruding from the wall - an iron bar. 

Celine lost consciousness for a moment and came round to find herself once 
more going under the water. At the same time she could feel something above her. It 
seemed to be pieces of plastic hanging down from the roof. She grabbed one. 

Soon the water picked up speed , the current became more and more difficult to 
resist and Celine could no longer walk. Forced on to her back, she once again felt 
herself being sucked along, out of control. 

She couldn't hold on to the plastic any longer. She felt her body being thrown 
around by the water, turning over and over in the icy deluge. Her shoulder, then her 
legs and knees, slammed against the concrete wall. Still being buffeted by the 
terrifying force of the storm water, Celine did not immediately realize that she was in 
the open air. Night was falling. Then reality hit her. "I'm outside! I'm outside!" she 


She was in a ditch whose water had over-flowed into a large flooded area, 
with houses on one side and fields on the other. She grabbed some tufts of grass and 
reeds but, still unable to lift herself out of the torrent, she screamed for help. 

Above the roaring of the water, she heard a man's voice. Jack Poderoso, a 45- 
year old teacher, was standing on concrete platform just above the storm drain exit, 
checking that his daughter's horse was all right. "Is there someone down there?" he 

"Yes, I'm here, I'm here," Celine yelled back, "What's the time?" 

"It's after 7 pm", he replied. 

Celine was amazed. "Have I been down here for five hours?" 

"Ring Serge," She shouted, "Tell him I'm alive. He thinks I'm dead." 

Jack could see that the woman was weak and still in danger. "No, calm down," 
he said, "You've got to get out of that river." 

Celine managed to heave herself onto the muddy bank, but there was still no 
way Jack could reach her. 

Jack forced Celine to give him Serge's number, repeating it figure by figure 
above the water's roar. When nobody answered, Celine managed to recall Serge's 
brother's number. Celine's head ached but, urged on by Jack, she dragged herself to 
her feet. 

Then she heard another voice, inquiring "Where's the body?" It was a fireman 
bearing a bag. It was after 8 pm when Serge arrived at Lunel's fire station. 

Afire engine pulled up outside. The doors opened. Inside sat Celine, her hair 
wet and bedraggled, her face battered. She had no voice left. She could only collapse 
weeping into Serge's arms. 

No one can understand how Celine survived. She has her own theory. "When I 
want something, I'm very determined. I wanted to be there for my daughter and for 

(Adapted from The Reader's Digest- Dec, 2004) 




- arranged in piles 


- moving around quickly 


- a hole under which drainage water flows 


- moved skilfully 


- walking through the water 


- quarrel noisily 


- rushing waters, floods 


- swung back and forth 


- victoriously 


- made wet by muddy water 

Answer the following questions: 

1 . Why did Serge and Celine decide to get out of their little terraced home? 

2. What did they do to safeguard their possessions? 

3. Where did Serge see Celine fall and disappear below water? 

4. Why couldn't Serge pull her out of the water? 

5. "She's dead", he thought. Why did Serge think that Celine was dead? 

6. What made it difficult for Celine to swim back? 

7. Whatwas the suggestion made by Serge's neighbourto save Celine? 

8. What made Celine fight to the very end? 

9. Why couldn't Celine realize that she was in the open air? 

1 0. Who was Jack Poderoso? How did he help Celine? 

1 1 . How long had Celine been under the drain? 

12. Whom did Celine ask Jack to contact, when he was rescuing her? 


Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . Describe the traumatic experience of Celine after being swept away into tiie drain. 

2. Attempt a character sl^etch of Celine. 

Reanrange in sequence the following sentences and rewrite in a paragraph: 

A). 1 . The pressure of the water was so strong and Celine's hand so slippery that 
Serge could not hold on. 

2. Serge quickly splashed over to help her up. 

3. Her hand disappeared from view. 

4. He grabbed it and pulled with all his might. 

5. But all he saw was a hand reaching up out of the water. 

B). 1 . "Yes, I'm here, I'm here", Celine yelled back. "What's the time?" 

2. "Is there some one down there?" he shouted. 

3. Jack Poderoso, a 45-year old teacher, was standing on the concrete 
platform, just above the drain exit. 

4. Celine was amazed, "Have I been here for five hours?" 

5. "It'safter7pm",hereplied. 

Match the following: 

1. Serge 

2. Jack 

3. Lunel 

4. Celine 

5. Amandine 

a small town 
Celine's daughter 
wife of Serge 
council worker 

Tongue Twister : 

Truly rural 

Preshrunk silk shirts 

Shoes and socks shock my shy sister 


A Funny Answer : 

Why do leopards never escape from 

the zoo? 

Because they are always spotted. 


- Kalpana Sharma 
Pre - reading activity : 
Tick off the items you use in your home: 

1. washing machine 
2. dish - washer 
3. vacuum cleaner 
4. mixer - grinder 

A. Who works these machines at home? anyone in the family parents servants 

B. Before these machines came in to your home, who do you think would have 
done the work these machines do? 

C. Which do you think is more difficult - machine applied domestic work or 
manual domestic work (work carried out manually) ? 

Now read this newspaper write - upon domestic workers. 
illegal and inhumane: A rescued child domestic worker 

1 . They sweep, they swab, they wash, they cook, they take care of our children 
and our pets, and they look after our elderly. We see them every day. Yet they are 

Yes, millions of women, men and children — 
India's large force of domestic workers, or "servants" 
as most people call them — remain unseen, 
undervalued and denied rights that all workers 

undervalued - importance, goodness or 

value not recognised 
denied - refused 


2. This is a subject to which we are forced to return every now and then. 
Sometimes it is a tragedy that forces us to 
think. Sometimes a positive development. 
In June 2006, when 10-year-old Sonu was 
sadistically tortured and killed by her 


sad happening 
getting pleasure out 
of hurting someone 


employers in Mumbai, the invisible world of the domestic worker, and especially of the 
child worker, lay exposed in all its brutality. With the New Year, the possibility of 
changing the conditions of work and life of such people comes in the form of the 
Maharashtra Domestic Workers' Welfare Board Bill that was passed by both houses 
of the legislature during the recently concluded winter session. Although the law has 
many shortcomings, it is important because it recognises the rights of these 
"invisible" workers. 


made to suffer 



a) Why is the world of domestic workers 'invisible'? 

b) How can the Maharashtra Bill help the workers? 

Beyond legislation 

3. Of course, laws alone cannot deal with a problem that constantly plays hide 
and seek. For decades, groups like the National Domestic Workers' Movement have 
campaigned for recognition of domestic work as a form of labour. The diligence and 
persistence of such groups 
have resulted in some states 
initiating legislation. For 
instance, both Andhra 
Pradesh and Karnataka 
have included domestic 
workers in the legal 
provisions for minimum 
wage. Tamil Nadu has included domestic work in the Manual Labour Act and in 
January 2007 set up the Domestic Workers' Welfare Board. Kerala has taken some 
steps in this direction, as have Bihar and Rajasthan. The Central Government has 
included domestic workers in provisions under the Unorganised Sector Workers' 
Social Security Act that was passed in January last year. And now Maharashtra has 
passed its own law. 

4. Most labour laws face the challenge of implementation but amongst the 
most difficult must surely be the ones linked to domestic work. To begin with, there are 
no clear statistics of the number of people working as paid labourers in people's 


plays hide and seek 

- evades 


- carried out series of organised 

activities to achieve something 


- steady effort 


- continuous effort 


- starting 


- difficult task 


- carrying out 

homes. According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), "A domestic 
worker is someone who carries out household work in a private household in return 
for wages." The estimated number of domestic workers in India is 90 million, but this is 
probably an underestimate as there has been no systematic study to document such 
workers throughout the country. 

a) hich are the states in (ndta that have shown concern for the domestic workers? 

b) Is it difficult to implement labour laws for domestic workers? 

5_ From the data that exist, it is clear that the overwhelming majority of 
domestic workers are women and girls. There has been considerable 
documentation of the abuse, young girls, in particular, suffer at the hands of their 
employers. Sonu's was not an exceptional story. It was just a reminder of what goes 
on behind many closed doors. 

6. An estimated 20 per cent of domestic workers are children below 1 4 years 
of age. Under child labour laws, these children should not be employed. Yet those 

who do employ them get around documentation - being recorded in documents 

the law by claiming that they are exceptional - unusual 

"looking after" these children 

when in fact it is the children who 

look after them, usually with little 

or no pay. Such child workers slip 

between the cracks of labour laws 

as most laws cover workers over 

the age of 18. The Maharashtra 

law, for instance, addresses domestic workers between the ages of 18 and 60 who 

are now eligible to registerthemselves at district welfare boards. But what happens to 

those under 18? 

I wonder ! 

What does 'slip 
between the cracks of labour 
law' mean? Is it the same as 
'find loopholes in the law?' 

penalised - punished 

7. Laws are necessary surplus market- where several jobs are available 

but those relating to domestic 
workers can only be effective if there is a change of attitude in the people who employ 
them. Do employers of domestics even know what the minimum wage is? Do they 
care? How will they be penaiised if they refuse to pay? Can domestic workers ever be 


strong enough to refuse to work in a labour surplus market like ours? Every day, 
changes in the economy and developmental policies are pushing more people into 
domestic work.. simultaneously- at the same time 

With extended families being replaced by nuclear families, there is increasing 
demand for domestic workers. This ought to push up wages. But simultaneously, 
the increasing number of infrastructure projects and industries are displacing millions 
of people, particularly from tribal areas. These are the women, especially, who are 
now joining the growing force of domestic workers in our cities. 

a) Do the labour laws include all age groups of workers? 

b) How are children affected by these laws? 

c) What are the causes for the increase in domestic workers? 

d) Besides laws, what coutd help domestic workers have a better life? 

Ground realities 

intervene - become involved in 

8, Slavery would be considered a harsh term by most Indians who employ 
domestic workers but the reality is that even today in many homes, the domestics — 
especially those who work full time — are often no better than slaves. They are usually 
in debt to their employers and work their whole lives to pay off the debt. Generations 
work to pay off the debt. And it never really ever gets paid off. They are on call 24 hours 
of the day, 365 days in the year. And they can never ever dream of freeing themselves 
from such bondage. How can laws intervene in such situations? 

9, Ultimately, things can and will change only if those who employ domestics 
accept that these workers are first of all "workers" and not "servants". That they are 
individuals with rights likeany other person. That they should be paid a fair wage. That 
they deserve time off. That they too have families to care for. That they should not lose 
wages when they fall sick. That they are valued human beings without whom our lives 
would be impossible. legislated - made into a law 

10. Such a change of attitude cannot be legislated. 

a) How are some domestic workers' lives similar to those of slaves? 

b) How should employers with a change in attitude treat their domestic workers? 

- Courtesy: The hinau, nth January, 2009 


AhlllA nptfi tnin^ M ^ A 

V ^72u>, fWM^kt txr- ^^JtFWi3w. 9FVUM. 

\ > 

Reflecting on the text \ 

1 . Do we really need someone to do our domestic work for us? 

2. Who are these domestic workers - 

a. Do they have a qualification for their jobs? 

b. Would they be able to get better jobs if they gave up being domestic workers? 

c. Do you think they enjoy the work 
they do? Why do you think so? 

d. How could you contribute to a better 
living for your domestic worker and 
his / her family? Use these clues to 
guide your thoughts: 
I. in your communication with 

ii. in the workload you give 
iii. in the facilities you provide 

3. What is your observation of the 
existing attitudes and what in your 
opinion would you consider a 'change'? 

4. Do you believe attitudes cannot be 'legislated'? If they could, what attitudes in an 
individual and in society would you ban as illegal? Which ones would you pass as 
a Bill? Discuss this in your class. 


Look at the words given below : 

Act Bill Legislation Law 

Do these words have the same meaning? Check your dictionary to find out. 

Match the fof lowing : 

Act - A written suggestion for a new law to be presented in parliament so 

that members can discuss it 
Bill - Laws orsetsoflaws processed and passed by Parliament 

Law - Abill passed by Parliament 

Legislation - The whole set of rules that everyone in the country must obey 


Fill in the blank with f/ie appropriate f' 
word from the four words given 

Right to Education Act (RTE) : 

The Right of Children to Free and 
Compulsory Education , which 

was passed by the Indian Parliament on 
4 August 2009, describes the modalities 
of the provision of free and compulsory 
education for children between 6 and 14 

in India under Article 21 A of the Indian ^ 

Constitution. India became one of the 

1 35 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the 

came into force on 1 April 201 0. 

Know your rights 

<=> The right to protection fronn harnn, 
trafficking dangerous drugs 

>=> The right to protection against 
being abused and forced by 
econonnic necessity to enter 
occupation unsuited for your age 
or strength 

>=> The rightto participation 

"=> The right to express yourself and be 


was approved by the cabinet on 2 July 2009. Rajya Sabha passed 


on 20 July 2009 and the Lok Sabha on 4 August 2009. It received 

Presidential assent and was notified as a on 3 Sept 2009 as The Children's 

Right to Free and Compulsory Education .The came into effect in the 

whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir from 1 April 2010, the first time 

in the history of India a was brought into force by a speech by the Prime 

Minister. In his speech, Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India stated :"We are 
committed to ensuring that all children, irrespective of gender and social category, 
have access to education, an education that enables them to acquire the skills, 
knowledge, values and attitudes necessary to become responsible and active 
citizens of India." 

Uncommon plurai forms: 

Some words take plurals of a different form. Look at the examples given below: 













termini, terminuses 


genii, genies 







alumna (feminine) 


alumnus (masculine) 


Some nouns retain the same form in the singular and plural . 
e.g. sheep, deer, species, aircraft, corps, swine 

Most compound nouns form their plural with an addition of '_s' 
e.g. dining room dining rooms 

grown-up grown-ups 

spoonf u I spoonf u Is 

In some compound nouns the plural is formed by adding 's' to the first part of the 

compound word. 

e.g. daughter-in-law daughters-in-law 

runner-up runners-up 

govemor-general governors-general 

In some compound nouns the plural is formed by converting both the elements in the 
compound word. 

manservant - men servants 

woman student - women students 
Some nouns are always plural. They have no singular forms. 
E«g. cattle, spectacles, means, premises 


Activity : 

Fill in the blanks in the columns given below : 











Stress : 

Look at the statement 

I am not going with you to the party. 

This statement conveys different meanings when you stress (use a force on) 
different words. 

e.g; I am not going with you to the party. 

The stress on T would mean 'Not I but someone else is going with you'. 

I am not going with you to the party. 

The stress on 'party' would mean, 'I am going somewhere with you but not to 
the party'. 

I am not going with you to the party. 

The stress on 'you' would mean, 'I am going with someone else, not you'. 

Now can you guess what the statement would mean if the stress was 
on 'not'? 


Read these sentences aloud changing the stress ta change the meaning of the 
sentence accordingly. 

1 . Vidhya gave me this present. 

2. I did not steal this pen. 

3. There is a park near the house. 

Writing Skill : 

Developing Headlines 

When writing a news report for a newspaper or your school News Board, your 
headline is the first, and perhaps, the only impression you make on your reader. So 
writing great headlines is a critical and creative art. 

On an average 8 out of 1 people read only the headline copy but only two do 
read the report. The better the headline, the better the chances of getting the report 
read by a greater percentage of people. The following points are what you need to 
know in order to identify a headline or differentiate it from a complete statement: 

1 . Headlines often contain a noun phrase with no verb 

e.g. : Unexpected visit of Minister to schools 

2. Headlines may have noun strings(several nouns put together) 

e.g.: Tamil Nadu State Board Examination Results Declared 

3. Various verb changes are made in headlines. The common changes are: 

a) The Simple Tense form is used instead of the Continuous or Perfect forms 
e.g.: Chennai celebrates Madras Week 

The people of Chennai are celebrating Aug 7 to 1 3 as IVIadras Week. 

b) The Infinite form refers to the future 

e.g.; Prime Minister to inaugurate National Games 
The Prime Minister will / is going to inaugurate the National games in Delhi 

c) The auxiliary verb is dropped in the passive form 
e.g. : Passengers injured in accident 

The passengers of a van were/have been injured in an accident 


4. Articles are dropped; full-stops are not placed after headlines 
e.g.: Man snatches woman's chain 

A man snatched a woman's chain .... 

5. Headlines may contain initials and abbreviations 
e.g, : India to host SAARC Meet in U.R 

Activity : 

Expand the following headlines into complete sentences: 

1 . Mobile phones banned in schools 

2. Scientist discovers new planet 

3. Foreign Secy, meets CM to discuss rehab 

4. Jewels stolen from house in Mylapore 

5. Dutch teens arrive for reunion with family 

6. Business campaign launched in China 

7. Thirty child labourers rescued in Agra 

8. Parents arrested for child abuse 

9. Indian awarded Nobel Prize for Physics 

10. AndhraXI beatViva to enter Football Cup semi-finals 

You have been able to identify a headline and expand it into a complete sentence. 

Now let us try forming a headline from a complete sentence : 

Indian Labour Investigators have rescued 25 child workers in a dawn raid on four toy 
factories in New Delhi. 

Let's ask ourselves these questions and answer them in single words or short 

What is this about? 30 child labourers 

What happened to them? were rescued 

From where were they rescued? from toy factories 

Now form a sentence with your answers and edit it to obtain the features of a headline. 

30 child labourers rescued from toy factories 



Form a headline for each of the following news reports. Remennberto pick out only the 
main idea or words from the sentence. 

1 . Two families residing in the posh Excel Apartments in Bombay, who had employed 
four children as domestic help, have been fined Rs 61,000/- in all by the State 
Labour Department's Child Welfare Committee. 

2. Activists in Jakarta are calling on all household workers to stop working and march 
in the streets during the nationwide strike called for from May 1-3 to push for the 
formulation and passage of the Domestic Worker Law. 

3. Children of a private school in Chennai city have taken a pledge to ease the 
workload of their domestic workers at home by sharing their work and teaching 
them in the time thus saved. 

4. K.Banumathi of SS school won the First prize in the Inter- School Debate on the 
topic "Are Domestic Helps necessary?" conducted by Lions' Club, 
South Chennai. 

5. The government has declared a two-day holiday for schools and colleges 
due to heavy rains lashing the city resulting in flooding of streets and residential 
areas in the city. 

Grammar- Revision of Active and Passive Voice; 

You have feamt how to use Active and Passive Voice. Here are a few more exercises 
for practice. 

Fill In te blanks using the correct voice of the verbs given In the brackets. 

1. You cannot meet the captain ofthe cricket team now, as he (interview) 

by the reporter at the moment. 

2. I (chat) with Prema on the phone when I was interrupted by the sound of 

the door-bell. 


3. Arun is busy now. He (draw) the diagrams in his science record. 

4. Our work (compiete) last night. 

5. Sneha (bake) cookies when she (interrupt) by a loud noise. 

6. Kavitha is an impulsive buyer. By the time she goes back home most of her money 

Identify the voice and select the correct verb form from the brackets fn the 
following sentences: 

1 . The florist (delivers / is delfvered) flowers to my office everyday. 

2. The children (looked after /are looked after) by their grandmother. 

3. The kitchen (is tiled / is being tiled). We cannot use it yet. 

4. The banquet (is being attended / was attended) by distinguished guests 
last night. 

5. The dusk-to-dawn curfew (will have lifted /will have been lifted) by the end of 
this week. 

6. Linda (had been ridiculed / is been ridiculed) by her insensitive classmates for 
her spelling problems. 

Rewrite the sentences in the other voice : 

1 . He was awarded a prize by the government. 

2. The certificates were issued to the students. 

3. The Manager did not give them a bonus. 

4. The old man completed his work. 

5. They must arrest the culprits. 

6. We should help the poor. 

Rewrite the following passages, transforming the verbs into the passive form, 
wherever possible: 
Passage *1 

Cheenu invented a magic pen. Whenever he made a mistake the pen would 
correct it automatically. One day he was writing a letter in class, when he spelt a word 
wrong. "How did I commit a mistake?" he wondered. "Has my pen lost its effect?" 
Cheenu was puzzled. He was not using his magic pen then. 


Unfortunately he had left the magic pen at home, so he could not correct his 
mistake. He had to submit his paper to the teacher. The teacher was correcting his 
paper and his mistake worried her. "Cheenu does not make mistakes" thought the 
teacher. "I will have to speak to him". The teacher's enquiry revealed the truth. 
Cheenu felt ashamed of himself. "I am using my pen selfishly. I am not learning 
anything new. I will not use it hereafter for personal gains. I shall work hard and learn 
my spellings properly"; this was Cheenu's decision. 

Passage -2 

Machines crush wood into small pieces. They mix the pieces with water and 
chemicals to produce pulp. Other machines spin the resulting pulp into fine sheets of 

When we recycle paper, we repeat the process. We use different chemical 
processes to produce the various required grades of paper. 

The sentences given below are incorrect. Rewrite them correctly. 

1 . The theatre was crowding with so many people that we couldn't find a place to sit. 

2. The construction worker was strike by a falling beam while he was working at the 
annexure block. 

3. The agenda is discussing now, so members are free to voice their opinions. 

4. At 8.30 last night, technicians were tried to reconnect the damaged power lines 
and restore electricity in our area. 

5. The cupboard crammed with so many things that everything fell out when I 
opened it. 

Transform at ion of Sentences from Com pound to Sim pie - Revision: 

Rewrite the following sentences adding ' -ing ' to the appropriate verb. 
An example is given below : 

I broke my ankle in a football match and had to go to hospital. 
Having broken myankle in a football match, I had to go to hospital. 

a) I couldn't walk, so I was taken in a wheel chair. 

b) The doctor decided to operate upon me and gave me an anaesthetic. 

c) It was very painful, so I had to stay in bed 

d) I recovered in a month's time and was discharged. 

e) I regained my strength and I started playing again. 


Prepositions of Time and Space « Revision 
Look at the following passages: 

A. Leave your books on the table at the centre of the room. Then go to the room 
beside the staircase. Wait there until I come 

B. There is not enough space between the desk and the bench. Arrange them 
properly, before the classes commence. 

C. Behind the cupboard, very near the wall, there is a narrow gap, into which a few 
charts have been kept. Unroll them and hang them on the walls of the room. This 
is the work assigned to you for today. 

The words underlined are prepositions. 

Activity : 

Choose the right preposition and fill In the blanks: 

1 . The work will be over (by, on) this evening. 

2. The papers are to be prepared (by, within) a month. 

3. My uncle will visit me (at, in) May. 

4. The cat hid (behind, under) the door. 

5. Ravi stayed with his uncle (for, by) six months. 

Listening Skill : 

The teacher will read the passage twice. Pay attention to the reading of the 
passage and answerthe questions given below: 

In 1989, the United Nations declared that all children of the world any race, 
religion or colour, whether rich or poor, healthy or ill, boy or girl, have certain basic 
rights that assure them a life of dignity. This declaration is called the United Nations 
Convention on the Rights of the Child. 

Our government passed the Right to Education Act in April 201 0. This means 
that all children between the ages of six and fourteen will be provided with free 
education. If someone is denied this right they can take the government to court. 
Earlier, in 2006, the government had banned the hiring of children as workforce in 
hotels and tea shops. 


If you come across any wrongful situation, you too can take an adult's help to get 
your voice heard or file a petition. Call 1090/1091 and get in touch with the police for 
any help in crimes against children. Do not be afraid to report a crime that you witness 
or experience. Your identity will not be disclosed. 

Questfons : 

1 . Children of all nations will be assured of a life of dignity if they have 

(a) rich food (b) basic rights (c) many friends (d) freedom 

2. Children in India, between the age of , will be provided education. 

(a) three and sixteen (b) six and eighteen 

(c)six and fourteen (d) four and fifteen 

3. The Government has banned the hiring of in hotels and tea shops. 

(a) old people (b) young people (c) teenagers (d) children 

4. The Government passed the Right to Education Act in April 201 0. 

(a) British (b) Indian (c)UNO (d)USA 

5. Call 1090/1091 for help in . 

(a) curbing acts of robbery in your area (b) situations of emergency 

(c) crimes against children (d) transporting victims of accident to hospital 

Reading Skill: 

Read the passages below and find out for yourself how these passages have 
increased your knowledge. Put down your points in a tabular form. 

Model Passage: 
Jasnrrina's Story 

Almost seven days a week, 8 year old Jasmina has to get up before dawn to 
fetch water for the household where she has been working as a maid for over a year 
now. That is the start of her working day. She will work, do the washing, sweeping and 
anything else required until about 11 o'clock at night when she lies down on the hard 
bathroom floor to sleep. 

She is tired most of the time but her employers beat her if she is not working 
hard enough or if she makes a mistake. "They want their shoes polished. If I don't do it 
fast enough, they hit me with a cooking spoon." After her father died, Jasmina and 
sister were sent to West Bengal to work as maids for a salary of 1 00 rupees a month . 


This is how the KWL organiser is formed; 

What 1 Know 

What 1 Want to 

What 1 have Learnt 

E.g. Maids have to fetch 
water and do the 
washing; they sweep; 
they polish the shoes 

All the work she has 
to do every day 


She has no father 


She is beaten badly 


She is paid only Rs.100 
a month 

She works in a place away 
from her home town 

Here are two more passages. Form KWL organisers for these passages, 
Lakshmi's Story 

I am nine years old and I work as a beedi roller. I live in Tamil Nadu. I have a 
sister. My sister is ten years old. She is a bonded labourer. Every morning at seven 
o'clock she goes to her master's house and she does not come home until nine o'clock 
at night. He treats her badly. He hits her if he thinks she is working too slowly or if she is 
talking to any of the other children; he yells at her if she is sick and cannot go to work. I 
don't care about school or playing or that I have to work. All I want is to free my sister 
from this man. I could do that for 600 rupees but I do not have 600 rupees. 

Yeramma's Story 

I am eleven years old now. I used to go to a government school but I had to 
discontinue my studies, as my sister fell ill. We took her to hospital but the doctor said 
we had to pay more money. My parents made me a bonded labourer for 1 700 rupees. 
I was about seven then. I worked unwinding the silk cocoons. I didn't like it but my 
parents made me work. They said I couldn't go to school ; I had to work. 

At work I had to get up at 4 o'clock in the morning. I was allowed to go home, 
only once a week. The rest of the time I lived at the factory. I slept with three other 


children in the factory between two machines. The owner provided us with rice, but we 
had to pay for it and cook it ourselves. We worked twelve hours a day with one hour's 
rest. If I nnade a mistake, I would be beaten. Girls had to undertake domestic work, 
besides working in the factory. 

Writing Skill: 

Using the points noted under the column "What I have fearnt' wnte a paragraph 
on how you could help such children overcome their difTicutties. Translate 
Jasmina*s story into your mother tongue Into the world of idioms 

1. child's play - a simple task for anyone who has the gift or 

experience to accomplish it 

2. a brain child - one's original ideas 

3. child -like - having the innocent and frank qualities of a child 

4. second childhood - old age 

5. a dropout - a student who leaves school / college / university 

without finishing his /her course 

Speaking Skill : 

Listen to the following narration and answer orally the questions that follow: 

Every Sunday I go to the orphanage and spend some time with the children 
there. During one such visit, I saw a nine year old boy sitting alone and crying silently. 
I asked him why he was crying. He would not answer. I sat down beside him, 
and consoled him as best as I could. Gradually, he stopped crying and told me that he 
had run away from a tea-stall, because of the harsh treatment he had to face 
there. I shared with him the snacks I had brought and cheered him up with kind words. 
I assured him that I would visit him every weekend. 

Where do you think this child should have been - in the shop orin school? 

Which would have helped him? 

Share your opinion of this passage with the class. 

Form three groups. Choose any one topic for each group and hold a discussion on it. 

The leader of each group should present the prepared write-up to the other two 



^ Where would you draw the line between work that is acceptable for children, 

and work that could be called child labour? 
^ If you could do three things to help child labourers, what would they be? 

Imagine that you are able to talk to the owner of a factory that uses child labour. 
^ What questions would you ask and what would you say to the owner? 

Activity : 

Are you interested in making simple crafts? Let us try one now. Form groups of four 

members. Each group will do the following : 

^ Take a dry leaf, a sheet of paper, bottle ink and a brush. 

^ Place the leaf on a plain surface. 

<ii Using a brush, evenly apply ink on the bottom surface of the leaf. 

^ Leave it for a minute. 

sa Now place the ink-applied surface of the leaf on a sheet of paper and press it lightly 

fora minute. 
^ Carefully remove the leaf from the sheet. 
^ You will find a trace of the leaf on the paper. 
^ Leave it to dry. 
^ You can use the trace to make greeting cards, pictures, stickers, or any art work of 

your choice. 

c> Now sit in groups and write a paragraph on how you created the imprint. Use 
passive voice in your description. To make it more interesting, each group can 
make an imprint of a different object and present a write-up to the other groups. 

^ Describe how you would decorate your house for a birthday party. 

^ Write how you would pack your bag for a holiday trip. 

Telephonic etiquettes 

There are some etiquettes of speech that you should follow while speaking over the 


Ifyou are the caller 

State your number and ask for the person you wish to speak to 
Be brief 


Speak fluently and accurately 
Finish the call with a'Thankyou.' 

If you are answering a call 

Give your name and phone number 

Speak politely 

Do not be too loud or hasty 

If the message is to be conveyed to someone else, note it down and assure the caller 

that it would be conveyed at the earliest 

Making / Receiving wrong calls 

If you make a wrong call, apologise to the person politely 

If you receive a wrong call, explain without irritation that you are not the person the 

speaker expects to contact; don't slam down the phone 





"For oh," say the children, "we are weary, 
And we cannot run or leap. 
From your pleasures fair and fine! 
Ifwe cared for any meadows, it were merely 
To drop down in them and sleep. 
Our knees tremble sorely in the stooping -- 
We fall upon our faces, trying to go; 
And, underneath our heavy eyelids drooping, 
The reddest flower would look as pale as snow. 
For, all day, we drag our burden tiring. 
Through the coal-dark, underground -- 
Or, all day, we drive the wheels of iron 
In the factories, round and round. 

For, all day, the wheels are droning, turning, — 

Their wind comes in our faces, -- 

Till our hearts turn, — our head, with pulses burning. 

And the walls turn in their places — 

Turns the sky in the high window blank and reeling -- 

Turns the long light that droppeth down the wall — 

Turn the black flies that crawl along the ceiling — 

All are turning, all the day, and we with all, --- 

And, all day, the iron wheels are droning; 

And sometimes we could pray, 

'O ye wheels' (breaking out in a mad moaning) 

'Stop! be silent for to-day!' 

- Elizabeth Barrett Browning 



stooping - 

bending forward 

drooping - 

closing due to tiredness 

droning - 

making a continuous low sound 

moaning - 

expressing pain or regret 

Answertha following questions: 

(1) Wliatdoesthepoetwanttlie children to do? 

(2) What do the children do all the day? 

(3) Why do they have drooping eye-lids? 

(4) What do they want to do if they see any meadow? 

(5) Whose sound is referred to as 'mad moaning'- the children's or the machines? 

(6) What do they cry for? 

(7) 'Underneath ourhea vy eye-lid$ drooping. 

The reddest flower would look as pale as snow. * 

Why would the flowers look pale? To what is the poet comparing the flowers , in 

these lines? 

(8) We fall upon our faces, trying to go' 

What is the condition of the children expressed through this line? 

(9) The reddest flower would look as pale as snow* 
What is the figure of speech employed in this line? 

(10) Dye wheels' (breaking out in a mad moaning) 
*Stop! be silent for to-day!' 

The figure of speech used here is: 

(a) simile (b) metaphor (c) personification 

(11) Memorise the first nine lines of the poem. 


Parallel Reading: 

Children are made to work in factories to manufacture products for trade. Here 
is a poet who refuses to buy the products. Read the poem and discover the reason for 
the refusal. 


Agreed that ,,. 
This is a wonderful doormat 
Soft, sill^y, smooth, glossy; 

Look at the design and the pattern 

The colors, the shades, the darkness ..* 

Influence the onlooker; 

The innocence and virtuousness of 
Delicate and subtle hands -., as if 
Fabricated childlike pure dreams; 

The doormat is precious and esteemed 

It is Just invaluable! 

The price you quote is rational; 

This is worth buying, worth possessing, 

Yet, I prefer not to buy this, 
I dare not use this doormat ...because 

I cannot be a killer, a murderer 
Of innocent children! 

Faheem Jawaid 

1 ) Why does the poet reject the purchase of the doormat? 

2) Do you think the children in this poem would have had to work as hard as the 
children depicted in Browning's poem? 

3) Discuss the possible difference in the wrk of the children mentioned in both the 

4) Attempt a rhyme of six lines about a child. You may use the rhyming words given 
below and add your own rhyming words for two lines. 

cheer, care, dear, share 





- RexCoker 

^v There are geniuses and tinkerers that live everywhere in small towns all over 

W the world. My brother was a tinkerer and spent much of his time coming up with 

new inventions that would keep him from having to overexert himself during the 

summer months when school was out. Having too much time on his hands, he would 

let his mind wander as he would sit down and apply his ideas to paper skillfully 

blueprinting his invention so he could try it out. 

The old Schwinn bike with the heavy balloon type 
tires sat upside down for weeks as he attached different 
things to the gear system of the bike. 

A DC electric motor he bought from a local pawn 
shop for twenty bucks and the old battery out of dad's old 
Chevy were fast coming together. 

The motor was mounted on the main frame just below the bike's seat. The 
battery was strapped down on the rack over the back tire and fender. 

Two cables were run along the frame to a switch mounted on the cross bar 
between the handle bars and seat. In the place of a sprocket which drove the chain 
was now a pulley with the fan belt off, of an old Yazoo lawn mower. 

A pulley mounted to the steering housing, with a spring to keep tension on the 
belt, made the bike look like something out of a science fiction novel. 

The day of the test run behind our house had us boys laughing with 
excitement. My brother had placed the bike on a center block to raise the back tire off 
the ground. He hooked up the battery terminals and switched the motor on. It stirred to 
life and the back tire began to sing a high pitched sound. ;<\^v // 

It was so cool to see his invention work, but the real test was about to be the 
most fun part of my summer and one that I will never forget. 


My brother saddled up on his beast of an invention, put his bike helmet on 
along with his leather gloves. He threw his leg over the contraption and held his thumb 
up for contact just like in those old war movies where the guy on the ground spins the 
propeller of the plane. I gave him the thumbs up also and he pushed off to get the bike 
up to speed before throwing the switch. 

'We have lifted ofT, I yelled! My brother put his hand down and threw the switch. 
The beast came to life and the bike hurried off into the distance. I tried to keep up with 
him, but the bike was much too fast. Standing there out of breath with my hands on my 
knees, I could see my brother was having a little trouble turning the bike around. He 
turned it sharply around the corner and disappeared around the block. When he 
reappeared minutes later he was headed straight for me at a high rate of speed. Tired 
as I was I had to run for my life to keep ahead of the invention. 
Darting through the double gate of the backyard I managed to 
escape under the clothes line to the back fence. 

My brother was not so lucky. Even though he had 
switched the motor off, his speed was too fast to stop and the 
clothes line caught him under his chin and cut him a flip off of 
the bike. I thought he was dead and I raced overto help him. I turned him over and he 
grabbed me and we began to fight. 
He cursed at me and asked me why I 
did not help him stop. I told him he 
should have let me ride it first. I am 
much shorter than he was and maybe 
even smarter. "OH YEAH," he said. 

"Why do you think that?" he 
said, "Well if you were smarter than 
me you would have bailed off before 
the clothes line." We started to laugh 
and we looked in the direction of his 



- persons who travel from 

place to place selling or 

repairing things 

Schwinn bike 

- a bicycle manufactured 

in theU.S.A. 


- mudguard 


- one ofthe teeth on the 

wheel of a bicycle 


- device 


- quick or light blow 

bailed off 

- escaped 


- bent, distorted 


The tires were warped and the battery had come loose and flew into the 
neighbor's back yard. My brother looked at me and made this statement. "Well, look at 
it this way. At least we had some quality time together today." 

Answer the following questions : 

1 . How would the brother's inventions help him? 

2. What aided brother's attempts at inventions? 

3. How was the bike constructed? 

4. Explain 'thumbs up'. 

5. What was the danger that befell the other brother? How did he manage to escape 
from the bike racing towards him? 

6. What happened to the rider on the bike? 

Answer in a paragraph : 

How did the encounter bring the brothers closer to each other? 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : 

My brother saddled up on his beast of an invention, put his bike helmet on 
along with his leather gloves. He threw his leg overthe contraption and held his thumb 
up for contact just like in those old war movies where the guy on the ground spins the 
propeller of the plane. I gave him the thumbs up also and he pushed off to get the bike 
up to speed before throwing the switch. 

'We have lifted ofT, I yelled! My brother put his hand down and threw the 
switch. The beast came to life and the bike hurried off into the distance. I tried to keep 
up with him, but the bike was much too fast. Standing there out of breath with my 
hands on my knees, I could see my brother was having a little trouble turning the bike 
around. He turned it sharply around the corner and disappeared around the block. 
When he reappeared minutes later he was headed straight for me at a high rate of 
speed. Tired as I was I had to run for my life to keep ahead of the invention. Darting 
through the double gate of the back yard I managed to escape under the clothes line 
to the back fence. 


Questions : 

1. What do the words 'beast of an invention' refer to? 

2. In what way was the brother's behaviour lil<e that of the character in the 

3. Why was the boy out of breath? 

4. What danger befell the boy watching the rider? 

5. How did the boy escape from the danger? 

Tongue Twister 


I Lisping lips lisp a lot. 

I The vets wore vests which were vets' vests. 

A funny answer 

What day of the year is a command to go fonward? 
March 4**" (sounds like March forth) 

What is the difference between a cat and a comma? 
A cat has claws at the end of its paws, and a comma 
has a pause at the end of its clause. 




Pre - reading Activity 

Have you seen birds flying in groups high in the sky? 
Where do you think they are going? 
Talk about what you have noticed: 
a) the way they fly b) their direction 

c) the time of the year when you see them d) the sounds they make if any 

Bird Migration is the regular seasonal journey undertaken by many species of 
birds. At a particular season thousands of birds travel from one place to another. 

One of the greatest mysteries of bird life is migration or travelling. Every year, 
during autumn and early winter, birds travel from their breeding liaunts in the 
northern regions of Asia, Europe and America to the southern, warmer lands. They 
make the return journey again during spring and early summer. They are very 
punctual too, unless they are delayed by the weather. We may calculate almost to a 
day when we may expect our bird friends to return, carrying winter on their backs. 

Some species also move out of one area into another, not very far away. All 
birds have a certain amount of local movements, caused by the stresses of living and 
the variations in food supply. This kind of movement is particularly noticeable in 
North India where the seasons are well defined. 

Birds which spend the summer in the higher reaches of mountains come 

down during the winter to the lower foothills or even the plains. This type is very 

common within India where the ' ; \ " 

species : groups with biological likeness 

mighty Himalayas lie close to breeding haunts : nesting places 

stresses : difficult conditions, hardships 

variation : degree of change 

well defined : clearly marked 

higher reaches : on top of the mountains 

the Indo-Gangetic plain. 

1 . What do birds do every year 
during autumn and early 

2. What could be the meaning of the phrase "carrying winter on their back"? 


The brave little voyagers face many dangers and 
hardships, while travelling long, long distances through 
the air over hill, forest and plain and over large stretches 
of water. Sometimes sudden storms arise and drive 
them far out of their course. Often they are blown right 
out to sea and they drown in the wild waves. Some times 
at night bright lights attract and confuse the birds. 


voyagers : travellers 
seldom : not often, rarely 

Migrating birds do not fly at their fastest. The 
migration speed is usually from 48 to 64 km an hour and rarely exceeds 80 km per 
hour. Small birds seldom exceed 48 km per hour, most shore birds fly between 64 
and 80 km per hour, while many ducks travel at 80 to 96 km per hour. Migrants 
generally fly at a distance under 900 meters, but some travellers have been found 
sometimes at greater heights. 

1 . Who are the brave little voyagers? 

2. Can you think of any other danger the birds face, during their migration? 

Some birds make the long journey in easy stages, stopping to rest on the way. 
Others fly great distances without pausing to rest and feed. Some fly by day, some 
both by day and by night, but most of them speed on their way through darkness after 

the sun has set. flocks : groups of birds of 

the same kind 
Birds usually travel in flocks. The V shaped excited : in a state of great 

formation of cranes and geese attracts much fluttering iSng lightly and 
attention as the birds speed across the sky. quickly 
Swallows, flycatchers, warblers, shorebirds and , twittering : chirping 

water birds begin to gather in flocks, each with its own kind and after a great deal of 
excited fluttering, twittering and calling, they rise up into the air and away they go. 

1 . Describe the manner in which birds make their long journey. 

2. Have you ever noticed the V shaped formation of birds as they speed across 
the sky? 

3. Can you suggest some reasons as to why birds travel in flocks? 


Birds were seen moving from one place to another witii tine cinange in seasons 
from the earliest times, but people had strange ideas as to why the birds travelled or 
where they went. To explain their absence from a place in a particular season, they 
said that the birds buried themselves in the mud and slept there throughout the winter. 

Later, detailed studies of migration started. Information was gained by directly 
observing the habits of birds, and also by ringing. Bird movements are also studied by 
creating artificial conditions and studying their effects on birds. 

Today, most of the information on migration has come from ringing young and 
adult birds. Ringing is done by capturing a bird and placing on its leg a light band of 
metal or plastic. The band bears a number, date, identification mark and the 
address to which the finder is requested to return the ring. The bird is then set free. 
The place where such a bird is shot, captured or found dead, gives a clue to the 
^^^^ direction and locality to which the bird has migrated. 

identification maric : mark showing 
who orwhat somebody or something is 

What had people 

who lived long ago 

thought about the movement of birds in relation to seasons? 

Ringing has proved that birds cover large distances. There is some evidence 
to believe that the woodcock on its winter movements flies from the Himalayas to the 
Nilgiris without a pause, a distance of 2,400km. The wild duck comes to our lakes 
from Central Asia and Siberia flying 3,200 to 4,800 km over the Himalayas. The rosy 
pastor comes from Eastern Europe or Central Asia. 
The wagtail, about the size of a sparrow, comes from 
the Himalayan regions and Central Asia to the plains. 
Smallest of all, the willow warbler, half the size of a 
sparrow, covers as many as 3,200 km to reach us 
every winter! 

How far away are the Himalayas from the Nilgiris? 
What are the birds that come to our lakes from 

Central Asia and Siberia? 
Which is the smallest of alt birds? 

Did you know? 
Butterflies too migrate! 


^ Why do birds migrate in spite of lieavy loss 

of life on the way? Primarily to escape the bitter 
cold and a restricted food supply. In the case of water 
birds, the food supply disappears altogether, when 

^ the water restricted - limited 

freezes "®®*'"9 sites - places made or chosen 

by a bird for its eggs 
and the' 

fish and other seafood are difficult to obtain. The main reason for the spring 
movement is the availability of nesting sites and the need to escape summer heat. 

1 . Birds migrate in winter to escape the cold and to find food, 

2. They migrate in summer to escape the heat and . 

The migration of birds is a fascinating study indeed, and there are many 
unsolved problems which lie ahead. For example, how do the birds know when to 
start? How do they know their way over the sea without any landmarks? How do 

they manage to return year after year to the | fascinating - very interesting 

same locality? How do the young cuckoos landmarks - objects clearly seen 

. . ,. ...... .X. . from a distance and 

join the adult birds without previous helpful in finding the 

experience, and without any guidance from way to a place 

adult cuckoos which fly to India and Africa foster parents - those who take 

^ parental care of the 

several weeks before the young cuckoos little ones 

are ready to leave their foster parents? 

These and many more such interesting questions lie ahead of you to solve! 

Can you think of anymore unsolved 'how' and 'why' problems regarding migration? 

Answerthe following questions : 

1 . In what way is migration one of the greatest mysteries of bird life? 

2. The migration ofbirdsfacestwo main dangers. What are they? 

3. Identify the reasons why birds migrate . 

4. What is meant by local movement? 

5. Do all birds travel non-stop when they make long journeys? What do some 
birds do? 


6. Describe how ringing is done. 

7. There are many unsolved problems in the study of bird migration. What are they? 

8. What is the distance covered by the smallest bird every winter? 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . How would our research on migration benefit the birds? 

2. Describe briefly how birds migrate. 

Complete the following sentences by choosing the best alternative under each. 
Think carefully before you make your choice. 

1. Birds migrate . 

a) regularly and seasonally b) three times a year 

c) only when in danger d) when the surroundings get polluted 

2. Birds migrate from the southern regions to the northern ones during . 

a) autumn b) early winter 

c) spring and early summer d) autumn and early winter 

3. Migrating birds fly . 

a) in pairs b) in threes c) single d) in groups 

4. Migrating birds are while travelling. 

a) protected b) free of danger c) in danger d) spared 

5. In early times, people believed that . 

a) most birds died in winter 

b) birds flew away to warmer places 

c) birds moved from place to place when seasons changed 

d) birds slept in the mud throughout the winter 

Vocabulary : 

Fill in the blanks in the paragraph given beiow^ choosing suitable words from 

the list provided: 

evidence nesting migratory migrating ringing unsolved species 

reappeared free landmarks captured passes reaches habits 

Till recently there was little knowledge about the route of those 

birds which spend the winter in India. What surprised all bird watchers was that 
these birds followed routes which had no at all. It seemed reasonable to 


conclude that when a of birds which was seen in Siberia, 

disappeared from there and some weeks later in various parts of India, it 

was probably the same flock. There was enough to show that flocks of 

birds crossed over the in the Himalayas. But this could 

not be proved. There were also hundreds of related problems that remained 

How did they choose the route? Did they fly over high mountain 

, or did they just cross over the passes? The only way to find the answer is 

by mass of birds. This means that a bird is and a small 

aluminum band is fixed round its leg before it is set Any one who finds the 

ringed bird, dead or alive; is asked to report to the address on the ring. Information 
collected in this way gives a picture of the migratory of that species of birds. 

Compound words: 

Look at the following underlined words. 

This plant grows at the foothills of the Himalayas . 

The fly - catcher bird is called so because it feeds on flies and insects. 

The Ice caps on the mountains melt in summer. 

They are made of two words put together to form a new word. They form a 
compound word with a new meaning* 

Match the words in column A with those in column B to form compound words. 
Write down the compound words you have thus formed. 

Col A 




















What is a compound word? 

A compound word is a noun, a 
verb or an adjective made of 
two or more words or parts of 
words. It is written as one word 
or more words, or as words 
joined by a hyphen. 


Compound words 

Noun + Noun 
Adjective + noun 
Gerund + noun 
Adverb + noun 
Verb + adverb 
Noun + verb 
Adjective + verb 
Adverb + verb 
Noun + adjective 
Adjective + adjective 
Adverb + participle 

are formed by joining a 

= seafood, starliglit, sciioolboy 

= goodwill, software, gentleman 

= sewing machine, walking sticl< 

= insigiit, outpost, fast food 

= wasliout, flasli back, make - over 

= nightfall, daybreak, waterfall 

= free-drive, dry - clean, deep - fry 

= outrun, well-defined, downcast 

= radio-active, light-sensitive 

= pale blue, light green 

= outsourcing, incoming 

Words borrowed from other languages 

English has borrowed several words from Indian and foreign languages. Look at 
the list of some of these words: 


borrowed from 




the policy of not harming any living being 



a discipline through which one seeks union 
with the divine 



a sauce made with vegetables 

dal/ dhal 


split pulse 



loin cloth worn by men 



mountain pass 



a heavy stick 



a veil, cover 

bona fide 


in good faith, genuine 



borrowed from 




and the rest 



for example 



in the same place, passage 

id est (i.e) 


that is 



notice well 



inventory, skills of performing different 



a ready and witty retort 



an attendant 



a situation to make extra money or to 
be successful 






the final part of a performance 



a long violent disagreement 


Match the following Greek words under Column A with their meanings under 
Column B: 

Column A 

Coiumn B 


culminating point 


emotional shock 


soul or mind 


confusion and disorder 






This is to help you recall what you have already learnt. 

Sentences are formed with the following: 

1) Subject(S) ^ ^^^^^^^^^^— 

A group of words that makes 
complete sense is called a 

The person who does the action in the sentence is the 
subject of the sentence. 
e.g: Ram studies well. 
Priya is my sister. 


2) Verb(V) 

The word that indicates an action done by the subject or 
expresses a state of being or shows possession, is called 
the verb. 
e.g: She went home. 


I have a sister. 

3) Subject Complement(C) 

The word or phrase which completes the meaning is called 

a complement. 

e.g: Solomon was wise . 

He became the leader. 

41 Object (O) ^^^ "^oxA which receives the action from the subject is the 
^ object of the sentence. 
e.g: He wrote a novel . 
He ate fruits . 
We applauded the leader. 


5) Direct ObjeGt(DO) and Indirect Object (10): 

Read the following sentence: 
My uncle gave me a present. 


I This sentence has two objects 'me' and 'a present'. 

' My uncle gave a present (DO). ( What did my uncle give?) 
My uncle gave me(IO) a present. ( To whom did my uncle give a present?) 
The second sentence is incomplete in meaning without the direct object. 

6) Object Complement: jihey elected him leader 

I Experience made him wiser. 

7) Adjunct (A) 

An adjunct is a word or group of words which provides 
answers to the questions: 'How', 'When' or' Where'. 
e.fl.: They came by bus. 

She went toChennaL 

I shall meet you tomorrow . 

You speak English well . 

Look at the following patterns : 

S + V 

S + V +0 
S + V + IO + DO 
S + V + C 


S + V+A 

Raju woke up. 

S V 

He wore his new uniform. 

S V O 

His father gave him his school baa. 

S V 10 DO 

He was excited. 

Reading made him a complete man. 

S V O C 

He was going to school. 

S V A 


Activity : 

Identtfythe sentence patterns in the foil owing passages: 

Passage 1; Mr. Raj is a teacher. He is my friend, i wrote him a ietter. 
iHe invited me to Sriperumbudur last weel<. I visited the temple at Sriperumbudur. 
We travelled in his car. His car is painted green. We both enjoyed the trip. 

Passage 2: Dr. Nanjappa is a dentist. He treats his patients at his clinic. 
He shows kindness to his patients. He has dedicated his life for their welfare. 
He works cheerfully throughout the day. Never is he tired! He loves his profession. 
All his patients adore him. 

Listening skill : 

The teacher will read the passage to you at normal speed . Listen to the 

passage and fill in the blanks in the sentences below. The teacher will read the 

passage again. Check and make corrections if necessary. 

Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of seasonal 
temperatures, therefore optimizing availability of food sources and breeding habitat. 
These migrations vary among the groups. Many land birds, shore birds and water 
birds undertake long distance migration annually, usually triggered by the length of 
the daylight as well as weather conditions. These birds are characterized by a 
breeding season in the tropical regions or opposite hemisphere. Before migration, 
birds substantially increase body fat and reserve and reduce the size of some of their 
organs. Migration is highly demanding energetically, particularly as birds need to 
cross deserts and oceans without refuelling. 

1 ) Various species of migrate. 

2) They migrate for climatic changes, availability of sources and 


3) Migrating birds prepare for flight by increasing , reducing or 

reserving the of some of their organs. 

4) Birds cross and without food. 

5) Therefore migration is a demanding process. 


Writing Skill: 

An idionri a day, keeps your mind in sway 

Here are some rdioms associated with birds ; 

1 . a cuckoo in tlie nest - an unweicome intruder 

2. to cfiatter like a magpie - to talk incessantly, witiiout interruption 

3. to crow over - to rejoice at tlie defeat of an opponent 

4. a cock and bull story - a wildly improbable story, often invented to excuse 

some wrongful action 

5. to be chicken-hearted - to be cowardly 

6. an early bird - someone who rises early 

7. a bird's eye-view- a view of something from a higher position 

8. to take someone under one's wing - to give a person one's help and 


9. to be up with the lark- to wake up early in the morning 

1 0. a jay-walker- a pedestrian who crosses the road without looking 

Activity : 

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate idiom from the list given above: 

1 . My younger sister loves to talk. She all day long. Most of what 

she says is . 

2. If you are while on the hills, you can not only have a 

of the valley below bathed in the morning light, but also see a 

variety of birds and listen to their songs. 

3. Babloo was till his uncle took him and taught 

him karate. 

Letter Writing - Revision : 

Points to Remember - A. Personal Letter 

a) Personal letters are friendly letters. 

b) The language used is informal - exclamations can be used. 

c) A personal letter could contain any number of paragraphs. 

d) Active Voice is commonly used. 

e) Salutations and subscription etc. are in the following format. 


Salutation : Dear (Name /Term of relationship) 

Body of the letter 

Receiver's Name and Address 

Sender's address 

Subscription : 

Yours lovingly /affectionately 

Superscription: xxxxxxxx 

Please note : Date, subscription and the superscription can also be placed on the right 
side of the letter. Whichever side you may use, if you punctuate one, you need to 
punctuate all. 

e.g: Sender's address 
1 5, Netaji Street, 


15 Netaji Street 



B. Format Letter 

a) This letter is for business and official purposes. 

b) The language is formal. 

c) Passive voice is commonly used. 

e.g . Active Voice: I received your letter on 

Passive Voice : Your letter was received on 

d) The subscription, superscription and date can be placed on the right hand side the 
paper along with the sender's name and address (From) and (To - the receiver's 
name and address.) 

e) The body of the letter will consist of three short paragraphs i) Introduction ii) 
Subject matter iii) Conclusion. 

f) A reference to the content of the letter / subject will be indicated after the 


e.g: DearMr.Varma, 

Sub : Defect in the machinery received 
Ref : Order No.568, dt. 20/05/2010 

Format of a Formal letter 




(Receiver's Name and Address) 

Dear Sir. 


Body of the Letter 

Address on the envelope 


Yours sincerely / obediently / truly / faithfully, 

Superscription(Signature and Name) 

Activity : 

I. Personal Letters -Write the following letters : 

1 ) To a friend describing a particular bird that you saw. 

2) You are planning to celebrate a festival in your house. Write a letter to your 
cousin asking her / him to come over with some things that you need for the 

3) To a friend consoling him / her who lost the athletic championship by just 
one point. 


II. Formal Letter - Write the following letters ; 

1) Tothe Principal of your school, requesting him /herto provide you with a bonafide 
certificate, enabling him /her to join a computer course. 

2) Tothe Postmasterinforming him of yourchange of address. 

3) To the IVIanager of a Bank, asking him / her information regarding the banks loan 
facilities for further studies. 

Road map: 

Study the road map given below. Then answer the questions that follow: 

5th lane 




You are 







6th lane 

Exhibitfon on 
India's Heritage 

-D 4th lane 






3rd lane 

13th Cross 


2nd lane 

ist lane 


The students of Govt. Higher Secondary School are visiting the exhibition on 
India's Heritage on 6*^ lane. The students are walking down at 12.30 in the afternoon 
on a hot day. 

1 . Suggest the shortest route they need to take to reach the place without being too 
long in the sun. Begin with : 

"Proceed along V.K. Salai till you reach 

2. What are the different routes you could take to reach the exhibition if you set 
out from the Government Higher Secondary School on a day when the weather is 

Speaking skill : 

Imagine yourself as having been selected as a member of a student exchange 
programme. This involves your staying in a foreign country for three months and living 
as a student of the school that you are visiting. It would mean living away from home 
and having to adjust with a different culture in every way. Would you accept this offer? 
Tell the class what you have decided to do and why . 

Project : 

I am sure you have seen many birds in the garden, zoo or in their natural habitats. 

List out their names, those of their young ones and the cries they make. Invite 
responses from your classmates regarding the various types of birds they would have 
come across. Interview your elders in school and at home to collect data. You could 
also seek information from a library or from the Internet. 



The globe's my world. The cloud's my kin 
I care not where the skies begin; 
I spread my wings through all the din; 
Through fears and fright I fly my flight. 
No walls for me, no vigil gates, 
No flags, no machine guns that blast 
Citizens of those border states- 
Brothers of her brother's sons. 
No maps, no boundaries to block 
My sojourn into unknown lands. 
I spawn and splash in distant spills, 
I breed my brood where'r I will. 
I won't look down. No I will not. 
With speed of wings I hasten past 
And close my eyes against the sun 
To dream my dreams and make them last. 
- Famida Y. Basheer 

Answer the following questions: 

1 . Who is the speaker in this poem? 

2. What kind of world is described in 
the poem? 

3. How are human relations described in 
this poem? 

4. What are the boundaries referred to by 
the poet? 

5. Where do you think the skies could begin 
for the bird? 



: loud, unpleasant, 

repeated noise 


: watchfulness, 

keeping awake 

when one should 



: camp, stay for a 

short time 


: yield, produce 


: a flock 


: remain 


6. Bring out the meaning of the phrases: 

(a) 'breed my brood' 

(b) ' Citizens ofthose border states, 
Brothers of her brother's sons' 

(c) 1 won't look down. NoJwillnoV 

7. Pick out the rhyming words in the poem. 

8. ' Through fears and fri ght I fly my flight' 
The underlined words are in alliteration. 

Give some more examples of alliteration from the poem. 

9. The poet has adopted simple words to convey her ideas. Attempt a similar 
poem on your own expressing your thoughts on any theme of your choice. 

1 0. What do you think a bird would dream of? 

1 1 . What underlying idea do you find in this poem : a note of determination to achieve 
without giving in to temptation (or) a sense of freedom to do anything anyway we 
wish without restrictions (or) any other idea you have identified? Support your 
answer with lines from the poem. 

12. Memorise the poem. 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . How does the bird's life differ from the life of human beings? 

2. What is your impression of the poem? 

3. Compare the idea conveyed in the poem you have just read with that 
conveyed in the following lines of a Tamil poem: 




Kumar stood staring out through the ^ 
window of a very comfortable, fully furnished 
apartment in New York. 

It was his flat. He had earned it as a highly 
intelligent and enterprising young man in his late 
twenties. . But Kumar could feel an emptiness in his 
heart. The blaring horn in the distance, the noisy movement of a truck. . . . 

Kumar's thoughts drifted to another place with its continuous honking of water 
tankers; a babble of voices; men and women jostling their way towards the tanker, 
racing after it, unsure of where it would stop. 

A narrow congested street; two flight of stairs upwards and a cramped flat with 
inadequate water supply; no study room and the door always ajar with his family 
members walking in and out frequently. Grandpa on his armchair watching the TV 
and the open door way; grandma ever serving coffee, pakodas, dosas, snacks etc; 
Dad with a serious face striding to work; Kumar's brother and sister busy with their 
school activities and Mother- oh - that soft, sweet creature, ever loving and caring, 
attending endlessly to all members of the family, cooking, cleaning and running 
errands. 'Oh, Ma! How I miss you' , thought Kumar. 

Pensively he recalled his preparations for his trip to the United States. His 
outstanding performance at college had gained him a wonderful career at an MNC. 
Very soon he was deputed on an assignment to the States and was assured of a 
promising career there. But oh, the migration from India to the States! What a lot of 
effort had to go into it! How much scheming and cajoling to convince Mother! Dad had 
squeezed out funds from every possible source. 

Brother and Sister had to sacrifice so many necessities just so he could realise 
his dream. Tear stricken faces had bid him farewell at the airport; but the vivacious 


Kumar had no time to consider this. His mind was set upon a glorious career in his 
dream country- the States. He obtained a green card, fulfilling the preliminary 
requirement for gaining citizenship in his Utopia - 

A full purse and a lavish lifestyle were now his to 
enjoy in this new country. Initially he would speak to his 
mother over the phone for half-an-hour, pacifying her, 
all the time waiting impatiently for her sobs to subside. 

Gradually he drifted away from her, carried away 
by the pleasure which his work and lifestyle bestowed 
on him. Besides, his calls made his mother sit up until 
midnight, waiting anxiously. Inevitably after the call, he 

lost his cheer, as she constantly pleaded with him urging him to return. This made him 
speak to her less and less. It started as once a week, then once a month, the calls 
grew rarer. 

A wave of guilt, remorse and longing swept over him as the images of his 
mother sitting by the telephone zoomed in on his thoughts. 

With a shudder he once again turned to the window. The sky was dotted with 
birds flying in a streamlined V! They seemed to be hurrying, every one of them in one 
mind, as if they had an important goal to pursue. It was that time of the year when the 
migratory birds returned to their homes after a five- month warm sojourn. He 
remembered his childhood picnic with his parents to Vedanthangal, where he had 
seen flocks of birds nestled among the trees. 

Dad had hired a telescope to give him a closer view of the nest, where he saw 
tiny little nestlings-five of them! Dad had then told him that even though these families 
resided here, they would soon go back to their homes far in the cold regions of the 
planet. His father's words rang clear in his ears. "You see Kumar, though they have 
stayed here for almost half a year and enjoyed our climate and the food available, they 
know that their home is in the Arctic. And there's no place like home, is there?" 

Kumar gazed at the flock flying back home from where they had come and 


slowly his vision blurred as tears filled his eyes. 'Home is where the heart is' Kumar 
thought, watching the birds till they were just specks on the distant horizon. 

Kumar left the room with a sure stride and a strong determination writ large on 
his countenance. 

Glossary ' 


courageous, willing to involve 

oneself in undertaking a difficult 





planning secretly 


persuading by flattery or deceit 


enthusiastic, cheerful 


an imaginary land of permanent 



rich, extravagant 


soothing, consoling 


bitter regret for having done 

something wrong 


made larger 


very obvious, clearly recognisable 


temporary stay 




became unclear or indistinct 

rang ciear in his ears 

sounded heavily 

Answer the fotf owing questions; 

1 . You get a seat in a school away from your hometown. You have to stay at the 
hostel there. How would you react to the situation? 

Adapting from one life-style to another is not very easy. How did Kumar manage 
to achieve this? 

What could have caused the empty feeling in Kumar's heart? 
In what way was Kumar's household warm and compassionate? 
List out the preparations made for Kumar's sojourn into his dream country. 
HowdidKumardistancehimselfawayfrom his mother? 



7. Why did the birds need to return to their Arctic homes? 


8. What would have been Kumar's decision? What is the reason for your answer? 

9. Nature can alterone's attitude towards life. Do you agree? Why? 

Answer in a paragraph : 

1 . How did Kumar's attitude towards his family members change after he 
reached the States? 

2. What were the thoughts evoked in Kumar on watching the flight of birds? 

3. What lesson had Kumar learntfrom the birds? 

Re arrange the Jumbled sentences in the correct order: 

1 . Kumar enjoyed his life in the States. 

2. He had learnt something from the flock of birds flying homeward. 

3. With great difficulty, Kumar's family managed to send him to the States. 

4. Kumar was a brilliant Indian engineer. 

5. Kumar felt a pang of sorrow in his heart. 

^ A funny answer 

What do young geese suffer from? 
Goose pimples . 

^ Tongue twisters 

Selfish shellfish 

Big Billy who had a big belly 
Was also a big bully . 



Pre - reading Activity 

Name some of the places of worship (of any religion) you have seen 
in your area. 
Tick off what you consider is common to them all. 

□ tall construction □ built with stone □ built several years ago 

□ priceless work of art Q heritage buildings 

The Brihadeesvarar Temple or The Big Temple as it is commonly called by 
the natives of Tanjore, is an architectural marvel of immense glory, that has astounded 
the world with its stupendous proportions and grandeur. Built in the year 1 01 by King 
Raja Raja Chola, this monument of World Heritage has, for a thousand years, stood 
as a symbol of the flourishing sculptural expertise and rich culture of ancient India. 

Tanjore, 'the Granary of Tamilnadu' is also the home of Carnatic music, dance 
and traditional handicrafts. Thanjavur was the ancient capital of the Chola kings, and 
the stylized bronze work for which the Chola period was famous, is still produced in 
this town. 

1 . How old is the BrlhadeesvararTemple? Who built it ? 

2. List out the specialities of Tanjore. 

Having overloaded myself with this and more 
information on Tanjore, I reached the palace in search 
of all the glory of the old Chola capital. The 16*^ century 
palace complex was built by the Nayaks and later 

renovated by the Marathas. Situated close to the old bus stand, the first of the 
museums I visited here was the Royal Museum. "Is this the might and valour of the 
Cholas I heard of? What am I seeing here?" I wondered; a scantily lit room with 
drums, urns, perfume bottles, wooden boxes, manuscripts, gifts, jewellery, weapons 
and other belongings of the Marathas. 

1 , Who built the palace? By whom was it renovated? 

2. What did the author see at the Royal Museum? 



- repaired into good 

- bravery 

- insufficiently 


A painting of a Maratha King welconnes you to the Durbar Hall. On the rear side 
of the painting an array of Pallava and Chola statues throws light on the craftsmanship 
of their era. The Art Gallery at the palace has an impressive line-up of granite and 
bronze monolithic statues, with details of excavation and century of origin clearly 
displayed: the gods, goddesses and other statues take you to a different era. The 
magnificent monolithic statues evince energy and life; the aura in their eyes beam a 
story of fine craftsmanship and effort. Vishnu, Ganesha or Nataraja look exactly the 
same as they look in today's images and statues. I also did notice a Buddha statue 
from the Pallava era here. monolithic - massive, monumental 

1 . What we re the Pallava and the Chola eras famous for? 

2- Describe the statues of the Gods and Goddesses displayed at the gallery. 

From the palace, I moved to the Brihadeeswara Temple. The structure of the 
temple looks majestic. The temple occupies an area measuring about 750 feet by 400 
feet, in a fort surrounded by a moat. It is a marvel of engineering, considering the 
technology of those ancient times. The towering vimanam is built up with stones with 
bonding and notching, without the use of mortar. The topmost stone, weighing about 
80 tons, is still a matter of discussion for engineers who are baffled as to how the 
builders lifted it to that height without the help of modern contrivances. A charming 
tale is told about a ramp being built from a village - Sarapallam- four miles away, from 
where the giant stone was pulled up by elephants. The details of the stone work of this 
imposing vimanam are representative of the masterly craftsmanship of South Indian 
artisans. The shilpi(sculptor) and the sthapathi(architect) came together to create 
their fanciful abode for Shiva. Naturally, the shape had to echo the divine Mount 
Kailash. In its perfect geometry and distinct clarity of lines, this tower is unbeatable. 

1 . What is the speciality of the vimanam? 

2. What aspect of the temple baffles engineers till this day? 

3. Why does the abode echo Mount Kailash? 

4. In what way is the tower unbeatable? 

The shrine for Lord Muruga is an 
integral part of the temple. It is a 
beautiful, elaborately carved stone 

moat -a deep wide ditch filled 

with water, dug round a 
castle as a defence 

notching - cutting 

contrivances - machines 

vimanam - the top of the seat of the 






-a feeling of great 

- lavishness, 

- steadfast 

structure, a designer's delight. To copy the unrepeated designs on each of the short 
pillars of this shrine would take an artist weeks if not months. One can just innagine 
how long the stone chiseller would have taken to complete each piece. 
Why would it take a long time to copy the designs? 

I stood in awe, astonishment and reverence when I saw a walled fortress 
inside - a standing testimony of the Cholas' opulence and vision. The enormity of the 
deities reflect the staunch reverence of the King to Lord Shiva. Rajaraja, his sister 
and queens donated their possessions of gold and silver to this temple. The gold the 
king donated came from his treasury. 

1 . What stands testimony to the Cholas" opulence? 

2. How is the king's reverence to the Lord revealed? 

3. What are the things that reflect the generous 
attitude of the Chela King and his family? 

The Intricate carvings on the pillars and the inscriptions on the walls make the 
temple a delight for a historian's senses. The script used in the inscriptions resemble 
Tamil, Thai or some of the South East Asian languages. The huge (8.7m height) Shiva 
Linga in the Sanctum Sanctorum and Nandhi Statue reflect the munificence of the 
Cholas. The pillared cloisters 
beside the main structure have 
a series of deities and Shiva 
lingas, worthy to be admired. 
The murals narrate the story of 
Shiva's might. 

Among the things visible are the interlocks of the granite stones. The rocks so 
perfectly fitted into one another at a height of 1 metres seems to share a harmonious 
bonding, unnerved by the rains, winds and heat. Very well maintained, this structure 
will leave you with thoughts like, 'Was it actually built in the 1 1 * century?' 

Unlike many temples, here the 58m tall and 13-storeyed Vimanam makes the 
Gopuram. The inscriptions of the Vimanam talk about 
Raja Raja Chela's gifts to the temple. In its 
magnanimous idea, its grandiose vision, its display 


- fine, delicate 

Sanctum Sanctorum 

- the main place in which 

the idol for worship is 



- generosity 


- covered passages 

magnanimous -splendid 
grandiose - impressive 




of the herculean effort in construction, its portrayal of their glorious past of the Chola 
regime and their patronage for arts and culture, this temple stands as testimony for 
all and ever. 

1 . What evokes wonder in the onlookers? 

2. What is written on the Vimanam? 

3. What were the contributions of the Choias towards art and culture? 

One can spend a whole day in the Big Temple, and still want to come back to 
marvel at every detail of its beauty. Many kings had built temples to Shiva on the 
banks of the Kaveri. Many saints have sung in praise of these deities. But there is only 
one temple to Brihadeesvara , and it stands tall, a thousand years after a devotee- 
king climbed a ladder with a copper pot (kalasam) anointed with holy water from all the 
sacred rivers, to dedicate it to history. Our history! 

Who consecrated the temple? How? 

Reflecting on the text : 

1 ) Are we, of modern India, still capable of such creative and artistic skill? 

2) How necessary is it to preserve these monuments of our culture? Why? 

3) What could be the reason for any structure lasting a thousand years: the strength 
of the construction or people's attitude of reverence to what it symbolises or could 
there be any other reason? Discuss. 

Answer In a paragraph : 

1 ) What makes the Brihadeesvarar temple unique and outstanding? 

2) What were the contributions of the Choias to art and culture? 


Prefixes and Suffixes - Revision : 

A. Match the given prefixes In column A with the root words in column B to 
form new words: 

column A 

column B 












Choose a suitable suffix from the list in column B for each root word in column A 
and write down the new words you have formed. 

Jf — 

-^A A 





















-ion 1 





C. Fill in the blanks with the suitable antonym of the words italicized, 
choosing from the list given below: 

1 . The settings were impressive, but the performance of the artists were 

2. The IT. firms stood in rich opulence, quite in contrast to the neighbourhood of 

He bowed in reverence to the king; but his son showing his 
walked out of the assembly. 

Youngsters with talent ought to be patronised and not 

The arrogant prince ascended the throne, but he was 

the people. 

after a revolt by 

(poverty, discouraged, unimpressive, dethroned, irreverence) 

D. Identify the right spelling of the words from those given below and write 
them in the space allotted: 

1 . architact / architect / archetect 

2. craftsmanship / craftmanship / craftsmenship 

3. monolitic / monalithic / monolithic 

4. inscripsion / inscreption / inscription 

5. intrecate / intricate / intiricate 

E. Make sentences of your own with the following words and phrases : 

1. an array of 2. on the rear side of 3. harmonious 

4. magnanimous 5. testimony 6. divine 


R Locate the words from the text with the help of their meanings given below: 

6) complex, 
complicated, entangled 


5} evidence, proof, 


3) time, age 

1} splendid, 

M, ditch 


2) amazement, 
awe, wonder 


G. Complete the crossword puzzle with the help of the given clues. 



1. very big in size 
3. The sculptures 


Cholas' architecture, 
to be similar to another 
person or thing 


2. This place is called The 

of Tamilnadu'. 

5. The Idol we worship Is called a 


Grammar : 

Tense forms - Revision 

Let us recall : 

The present tense is used to denote habits, universal truth, things that 
happen regularly and to denote the verbs showing the 'state'. 

♦ l_dririk a glass of milk every morning. 

♦ Honesty is the best policy. ♦ We always sleep late. 

The present continuous tense denotes things happening now, a state of 
situation and to emphasise how often a thing happens. 

♦ Look! The children are playing. 
^X* He Is studying medicine. 

<* It IS getting late. 

♦ The child is always crying. 

The present perfect tense refers to a recent past action that affects the 
present, a general experience and to indicate an activity in a time period. 

*l* Oh! All the vacancies have been filled! 

♦ I have visited that city many times. 

♦*♦ He has taught hundreds of students in his career. 

♦ These villagers have preserved the folk songs in their pure form. 

The present perfect continuous tense indicates a continuing or a recently 
finished action which is over a period of time. 

K* I am sleepy. I have been working all night. 

♦ He has been playing the whole morning. 

The simple past tense is used to refer to an activity that took place in the past 
or a situation that existed in the past. It also refers to regular or habitual activities 
in the past. 

♦ We visited Delhilast summer. ♦ The war lasted.for eighteen years. 

♦ He played a lot of cricket in his younger days. 


The past continuous tense is used to express an activity going on at a point 
of time in the past. It is also used to refer to two contrasted activities going on at the 
same time in the past. 

♦ Last evening I was attending a seminar at the University. 

♦ Kalyani and Vimal were singing throughout the concert. 

♦ It was raining in one part of Chennai this morning, while the sun 
was shining in the other. 

The past perfect tense is used to express an action which had taken place 
before another action was begun. 

♦ When I reached the school the bell had already rung. 

♦ Saria couldn't eat her lunch as she had spoilt her appetite with potato chips . 

The past perfect continuous tense is used to indicate a temporary activity 
which was in progress up to a specific time in the past. 

♦ Before I went to Delhi, I had been living in Chennai for eight years. 

The simple future tense is used to refer to an action that will take place or is 
likely to happen in the future. It may also refer to a plan that is already decided. 

+ I wJH meet you this evening. ^ Your request witt be rejected. 

The future continuous tense expresses an action or a state that will be in 
progress in the future or extending over of period of time. It also refers to an idea that 
has already been planned or is a part of the regular schedule. 

^ I shall be leaving for Mumbai tomorrow evening. 

> The office will not be functioning from Tuesday to Friday next week. 

+ Fresh stock will be arriving this afternoon. 

The following tenses are rarely use in normal communication : 

The future perfect tense is used to denote an action that has taken 
place already. 

+ She will have slent by now. 

It is also used to make predictions about future completed actions. 

+ Mybrotherwill have left before you return. 


The future perfect continuous tense is used to indicate an action that will 
have been taking place at some point of time in the future. 

^ I shall have been studying in this school for ten years by the end of this year. 

+ You wrfl have been learning many useful things for sometime before you face the 
job interview in two years' time. 

Note that except in Simple Present and Simple Past Tenses auxiliary 

verbs are used with the main verbs. 


A. Complete the paragraph below with the correct forms of the verbs 
given in brackets: 

Shiny (be) not attentive in class. She (worry) about 

something. She (think) about the condition of her grandmother, who 

(be) in hospital. She (want) to go to the hospital and 

(stay) with her grandmother. Her teacher (ask) her the reason for her 

restlessness. She (console) Shiny. "By this time tomorrow, your 

grandmother (discharge) from hospital. You can stay by her side, as it 

(be) Sunday tomorrow", (say) the teacher. 

B. Fill in the blanks with the given verb usi ng it in its appropriate tense form and voice. 

It (rain) heavily the whole night. The power (cut) 

off. Poor Seema (lie) wide awake in bed. It was 7 a.m.; a lazy, sweaty Sunday, all 

because of the power cut. Seema's eyes (burn) and her face was flushed. 

Slowly she got up and tiptoed into the next room, where her dear Jimmy 

(sleep) undisturbed. The dog never liked to be left alone and (whine) the 

entire night in its kennel. So Seema (bring) her to the adjoining room, 

from her kennel below. "She (enjoy) a peaceful slumber" thought Seema. 

"Later today, I (take) her to the park. She (pat) and stroked by 

the little children who visit the park," mused Seema. "By evening, she would have 
forgotten last night's trauma and regained her spirits. So let me cook something nice 

for her," decided Seema. She (cook) so enthusiastically that she did not 

notice Jimmy creep into the room. The dog's gentle whimpers (drawl her 

attention. "Oh sweetie! How lucky you are! The power (resume). Finish your 


breakfast and we (have) a nice time together!" So saying, Seema hugged 

J inn my. 

Modals : Revision 

Modals are used frequently in our speech. They play a vital role in conversation. 
Modals are thirteen in number . 

will - would, shall - should, can - could, 

may-must, might, used to, oughtto, need, dare 

shall will ^ ■ ■ * 

mav can ^ These are used in interrogative 

would could ^^^^^ sentences to ask permission. 

e,g, "^ Will you give me your pen? 

^ Mav I come in sir? 
^ Can I ask another question? 



Would you please help me to cross the road? 
Could you please give me your pen? 

may ^^^ possibility 



1. It may rain today. 

2. He may come to my house tomorrow. 

3. Youcangetthebookfromhim. 


Frame meaningful sentences using the words in the table below: 

1 ' 


You 1 













obligation / duty 

e.g. 1 . You should not waste yourtime. 

2. We should go to school regularly. 

3. The man should be paid more for the heavy work he has done. 

strong obligation 

e.g. 1 . You must improve your handwriting. 
2. He must exercise every day. 

Semi medals / Quasi modals: 

moral obligation 

e.g. 1. You ought to respect elders. 
2. You ought to help the poor. 





to refer to a habit of the past 
a discontinued habit 

1 . He used to waik iong distances, when he was young. 

2. She used to visit her uncle's house, when she stayed at the hostel, 


1 . You need to be here till evening. 

2. He need not write the test today. 

be brave enougli to face 

It is used in interrogatives and negatives. 

1 . How dare you oppose me? 

2. He dared not tak to you. 


Sara does not understand a concept her teacher has just taught her. 

Complete the dialogue given below using modals: 





Excuse me Madam, 

you repeat the explanation again, 
be very attentive 

Why do you want me to repeat it? You 

when I am teaching. 

Sorry madam, I hear you properly . 

You have a hearing problem Sara, check your ears. You 

sit in the front row from tomorrow. I now 

explain it again. Pay attention. 
Thank you Madam. 


Listening Skill: 

Listen to the poem and fill up the blanks given below. 

What is Hope? 

Hope is the bright shining light which keeps darkness at bay 

Hope is the gentle cold breeze on a hot summer day 

Hope is to remain positive when going gets tough 

Hope is seeking more when others think you had enough 

Hope is dreaming of tomorrow 

Hope is simmering under sorrow 

Hope is the sparkle of tears in our eyes 

Hope is a beautiful thing , beautiful things never die. 

Hope is 

Hope is a 

Hope gives us a 

Hope lets us 

Hope keeps 


on a hot day. 

attitude when things go wrong. 

_ of a future and doesn't allow us to be 
things alive /eternal. 

Speaking Skill: 

Intonation- Exclamation and Interrogation 

Role play : 

Listen to the teacher as he/she reads this dialogue with the correct pronunciation and 

intonation, and rehearse it in pairs. 

Child : Father, Look how beautiful the Taj Mahal is in this picture! I wish I could go 
to Agra to see it ! Have you seen the Taj Mahal, Father? 

Father : No, my child, I too haven't been to Agra but perhaps we could try to visit Agra 
in the summer holidays, couldn't we? 

Child : Ah! Yes Father, let's do it. 

Father : You know, it will cost quite a lot to make that trip. You would have to help me. 
You will, won't you? 

Child : How can I help you with money Father? I am not earning any! 


Father : You don't have to earn money! Just don't cause unnecessary expenses. Cut 
down on your chocolates, your regular new clothes, your talk-time on the 
phone and of course, youreating in hotels! We will then have enough 
money for our trip. Don't you think so? 

Child : Now that's going to be very difficult for me! But I'll try. I promise you! 


Tou visit a famous historical monument with your friend. You 
see sofne children and adults scribbling on the walls of the monument, 
carving their name, their city and their signature. Tour friend ignores 
their act. Point out to your friend the need to prevent people from spoiling 
such symbols of pride and glory. Also offer advice to those people who mar 
the beauty of the monument with their reckless act 

Reading skill> 

Read the table carefully and answer the questions given below:- 


Type of the room 

(per day) 

Distance from 
the Central Bus 
stand (in kms) 

Hotel Tamil Nadu 

Single, nonA/c 



Hotel Cheran 

Single, A/c 



Hotel Pothigai 

Double, nonA/c 



The Kaveri Park 




Questions : 

1 . Which hotel is the nearest to the Central bus stand? 

2. What is the rent of the A/c room at Hotel Cheran? 

3. Why is the Kaveri Park Hotel so expensive? 

4. What is the distance between the bus stand and Hotel Pothigai? 

5. Which is the hotel that can cater to all the requirements of a thrifty tourist? 


Writing Skill : 
A. The idiom quest 

1 . time out of mind -time immemoriai 

2. to mal<e liistory- to do sometliing important, for whicii one will be remembered 

3. off the beaten tracl< - isolated 

4. to build castles in the air- to have impossible desires 
to tread on unknown waters - to explore 

You have just returned from a five-day tour to a place in India, visiting the 
historical monuments in the area. Prepare an account day-wise, describing 
your tri p. Write down the details in the format given below:- 


Day 2 

Day 4 

C. Given below are some answers. But the questions are missing. Frame suitable 
questions using one of the following for each question ' what, where, who, 
when, why'. 












Tamil Nadu is located on the eastern coast of South India. 

The people of TamilNadu are known as Tamilians. 

Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu. 

It was earlier called Madras Presidency. 

Tiruppur Kumaran,V.O. Chidambaram, Bharatiyar are a few 
freedom fighters fromTamil Nadu. 

Tamil Nadu became a state in the year 1 950. 

Tanjore is rich in rice crops. Hence it is called the granary of 


D. Write a paragraph on the world's most famous historic tomb 

by thousands of 
tourists every year 


Place Egypt 
4500 years ago 

built for the 
Pharaoh Khufu 

Interesting features: 

^ a tomb for a Pharaoh 

^ big stone blocks of many tons 

^ time duration- 40 years 

^ number of workers -about 1 ,00,000 

^ was finished about 2465BC 


You could start your paragraph like this: 

One of the most interesting historic structures in the world is 

Organising a seminar: 

Topic: Is our cultural heritage under threat? 

How is a seminar conducted? 

Note : A seminar consists of the following participants : A Chairperson, A 
Coordinator, four orfive speakers 


The Chairperson inaugurates the seminar, speaks on the need for the 
discussion and initiates the seminar. The Coordinator renders the welcome address, 
introduces the speakers and records the speeches. 

Each speaker focuses on a particular aspect of the topic: 

1. Importance ofa country's heritage 

2. The need to protect and preserve the heritage in a changing world 

3. National Heritage-Important sites 

4. Tourists' attitude towards our national heritage 

5. How students could contribute towards the preservation of our cultural heritage 
The speakers present their papers. The co-ordinator sums up the points. After 
discussion the co-ordinator proposes the vote of thanks. 

Follow the guidelines and organise the seminar. 

E. Project : 

A project is a self learning activity where you gather knowledge on your own 
without depending on the teacher. 

Steps involved in preparing a project: 

1. Go to the library and consult an encyclopedia or other reference 
books and gather matter on the topic you have chosen. You could also 
browse the Internet and gather information. 

2. Prepare notes on what you would like to include in your presentation. 

3. Structure the points into paragraphs with suitable headings and sub 

4. Include pictures wherever required or is necessary. 

5. State the sources from where you have collected the information. 

6. Present the report in the form ofa booklet. 

Activity : 

a) Using these guidelines and the passage given below, prepare and present a 
project on World Heritage Sites. 


Our heritage tells us many things about where we come from. In fact, the spirit 
of any nation is founded upon its historic heritage, and if this knowledge becomes 
shaky, the nation loses much of the important factors for existence itself. This is not to 
say that one must accept everything in one's heritage as sacred and inviolable, but 
that one must know it in order to learn from it and keep the best practices going while 
changing what one thinks is not right. 

More than forty Indian sites are now designated World Heritage Sites, 
including not just places like the caves of Ajanta and Ellora or the Sun Temple at 
Konarak but also the Mountain Railways of Darjeeling, Kalka-Shimla and the Niligiris, 
as well as natural sites like the Sunderbans and the Valley of Flowers. 

Despite such a wonderful heritage as ours, people generally do not have 
enough knowledge about it, and therefore parts of our heritage are being destroyed 
every day - without even being recorded for future generations. The National Mission 
on Monuments and Antiquities set up in 2007, has the following objectives:- 

V Preparing a national register of built heritage, sites and antiquities 

> Setting of state level databases of built heritage sites and antiquarian wealth for 
making information available to planners, researchers, etc. and for better 
management of such cultural resources 

y Spreading awareness about the benefits of preserving the historical and cultural 
aspects of such resources 

^ Providing training in the field of conservation of built heritage and preservation 
and management of remains from the past 

b) 1 . Write a paragraph on any of the sites declared as World Heritage Sites. 

2. Write a letter to a hotel at the site, asking for reservation of accommodation 
for twenty students and two teachers. You intend to stay for two days and 
require a guide to take you to see the monuments. 

3. Prepare a dialogue describing the features of the site , while discussing it 
with your friend. 



Steady throb 

Then staccato rhythm 
Harmonic cacophony to oblivious ears 

The tempo is fickle- 
Now synchronized, now not, 

A mirror of his changing moods 
Now sure, now steeped in thought. 

Bleary eyes, 

Sinews taut yet steady. 
Decades of practice 

Heirlooms of rich traditions 
In stark evidence 

The knocking softens, fades, 
To a mild judicious tap. 

Virgin rock takes form 
Rugged lines melt. 

Sharp edges merge 
Into smooth well moulded curves. 

He steps back, surveys with 

Close scrutiny, then sharp critical glare 
The days of toil. 

Hammer and chisel laid aside- 
Only bloodshot eyes betray 

Deep pride, then reverence, 
Lo! God in Man's image ! 



sculptor, one who carves 

statues from stone or any 

hard material 


a series of short detached 


cacophony - 

a harsh mixture of sounds 


not aware of what is 

happening around 




not focussing 




complete, sheer 



1 . What do the words 'throb' and 
'rhythm' refer to? 

2. How can cacophony be 
harmonic? Explain the contrast. 

3. There is variation in the tempo. 

4. How are the shilpi's moods 
connected to the tempo of his 

5. What has the shilpi attained 
through decades of practice? 

6. What are the "heirlooms of rich traditions"? 

7. Why does the knocking soften to a mild tap? 

8. What is the consequence of the knocking? 

9. What is surveyed closely and critically? 

1 0. Why are the tools laid aside? 

1 1 . State the emotion portrayed in the bloodshot eyes. 

12. Why are the eyes bloodshot? 

1 3. The 'created' assumes the role of the 'creator*. How? 

i. There is alliteration in the first two lines of the poem. Write down those words 

which are in alliteration, 
ii. Point out at least four more instances of alliteration, from the poem. 

Answer in a paragraph : 

Attempt a description of the physical appearance ofthe shilpi as portrayed in 
the poem. 

Going beyond the text : 

You might have experienced many occasions when you would have tried 
making orcreatinganartorcraftwork or a model for a project. Did you go through toil 
or turmoil to complete it? Write your experience in 100 words in a paragraph or a 




- (adapted from a short story by Oscar Wiide) 

Art and culture is one form of creativity. Innovatively tackling the problems of 
life calls for yet another form of creativity. Here is a story of how the creative 
thinking of a little boy helps him overcome with ingenuity and wit a threat to his 

Hubert, a little boy of fourteen, once travelled on his horse through a lonely 
road, infested with thieves and robbers . Three hefty men waylaid him, took away his 
horse and beat him black and blue. 

Poor Hubert limped his weary way across to a palatial mansion hoping to get 
some help. On reaching the mansion, he raised his hand to knock, when he saw the 
door already wide open . 

As he painfully staggered inside, he was shocked to hear the voices of the 
thieves who had waylaid him. The thieves had tactfully diverted the attention of the 
inmates of the house to some huge noise outside, forcing them all to rush onto the 
streets to find out what was happening there. As the inmates were likely to return 
soon, the three thieves decided to hide inside a cupboard and wait until night to 
plunderthe household. 

For fear of being subjected to more thrashing, Hubert suppressed his cry of 
horror. He cleverly hid in the narrow space under the staircase. Intelligent and clever 
by nature, he was yearning for a chance to warn the household of the impending 
danger. He noticed that the family - an old couple and their visiting sons and 
daughters who had gathered for a family function, had just come back into the house. 
Little Hubert made his appearance meekly, shocking them all by his presence from 
within the house. 

Though they initially took him for a thief, the kind old man believed his story and 
asked the servants to offer him food. All the while Hubert was wracking his brain trying 
to find a way to forewarn the unsuspecting family of the presence of the danger lurking 
in the cupboard. 


Suddenly Hubert sprang up, offering to dennonstrate a few magic tricks to the 
family. Hubert's first act was to create a storm in a cupboard. He beckoned the old 
man to toss him his snuff-box. Commanding the others to follow him in silence, lest his 
magic spell be broken, he tip-toed to the cupboard and climbing on the stool, he 
emptied the snuff box into the narrow opening along the upper edge of the door. With 
a few short puffs of breath, he blew the snuff into the cupboard. No sooner did he 
complete his task, than emerged a suppressed sneeze from inside the cupboard. 
"How very strange!" said the old man." "More snuff" Hubert said in a hushed voice, 
gently locking the cupboard. More boxes of snuff were tossed on to him and one by 
one all the stuff was sprayed into the cupboard. Very soon there was a perfect storm of 
sneezes. After emptying several boxes, the sneezing sounds were so frequent and so 
loud that the family realised the presence of strangers in their house. This was not a 
game of magic anymore. With the help of the servants, they opened the cupboard 
door, well prepared to tackle the thieves. 

Much to their surprise, and thanks and Hubert's skilful strategy, they found that the 
exhausted thieves had almost fainted, very badly in need of air and ventilation. Hubert 
retrieved his horse from the thieves and set off on his way with the goodwill and 
gratitude of the old man and his family. He had proved that Wisdom did not seek only 
the Aged to express itself. 

Answerthe following questions: 

1 . What were the circumstances that led 
Hubert to the palatial mansion? 

2. How did the thieves manage to hide 
unseen within the house? 

3. What shocked Hubert when he entered 
the mansion? 

4. Who were the inmates of the house? 

5. How did the family treat Hubert? 

6. Forwhatwas Hubert wracking his brain? 

7. How did Hubert perform his trick? 




- filled 


■ big and heavy 


■ attacked 


- huge like a palace 


■ house 


■ walked with difficulty 


■ rob 

impending - 

■ likelyto happen soon 


■ present but hidden 


■ plan 


■ got back 

8. Why did a sneeze emerge from the cupboard? 


9. Why were more sneezes heard from the cupboard? 

1 0. How were the thieves vanquished? 

1 1 . What do you understand of Hubert's character from the incidents in this story? 

Answer in a paragraph: 

1 . Narrate the clever manner in which Hubert outwitted the thieves. 

2. Describe the 'storm in the cupboard' and its consequences. 
State whether the following statements are True or False:- 

1 . Hubertwas weary with illness. 

2. The thieves had diverted the attention of the members of the household. 

3. The family met together to plan for a trip abroad. 

4. The old gentleman did not believe Hubert. 

5. Hubert emptied the snuff- box into the dustbin. 

6. The thieves sneezed as they had caught a cold. 

7. The thieves were caught by the thoughtful act of Hubert. 

8. Hubert stayed with the old man and his family, as the old man had 
adopted him. 

Going beyond the text: 

i) If someone emerges from within your house without your knowledge, how 

would you react? 
ii) Have you heard of 'storm in a tea cup?' What was literally the storm in the 

iii) Are age and wisdom related? 

Express your opinion in connection with this story. 

Tongue twister: 

Double bubble from bubbles double 
The sun should shine soon 

A funny answer: 

Why is a lazy dog like an inclined plane? 
An Inclined plane is a slope up 
( sounds like slow pup) 
A slow pup is a lazy dog 


Test your skill 

You have now mastered various aspects of grammar. ^ 
Here are some exercises for you to work with. 
Test the level of your mastery and find out for yourself the 
^ skills that you excel in and the areas you need to improve upon. i 

I. Fill in the blanks with the right articles : 

Karthik is famous percussionist. He is Indian. He 
cannot hear sounds clearlv as he has problem in hearing. He performs 
bare foot so that he can feel vibrations of instruments in 

II. Choose the right prepositions and complete the passage : 

We were travellina (on / bv) a lonelv road (in / at) niaht. when our 
car broke down. We could not aet help (of / from) anvone. We found an 

isolated bungalow far 

(below / downj the road. It v 
3 trees. My little sister had been c 
3 staved (in / within) the bun 
J then walked a long distance and s( 
(after / until) a whole day's wait, w 
continued ( on / for )our journe 

priate linkers / connectors fro 

if, that, as soon as, though, sine 
all , this room is also dark, 
jent in the language, he speaks it \ 
you are denied an admit card. 
i a book has a chapter or 

vas well-hidden 

it was 





St / in) some dens( 
tstarted raining. W< 
bright day light. We 
) a villaqer. 
r repaired. We then 

hoose the appro 
te blanks: 

rtheiess, in case, 
being smj 

;lever enough to spot it. 
qalow (upto/till) 
Duaht the help (of 
e finally managed to get 

m the list and fill in 

e, while, but, besides) 


he is not fli 
Call me up 
Please help me fine 

/vith confidence. 
T water resources 


5. He would have certainly attended the function he had been invited. 

6. Inform me you reach the station. 

7. it was raining heavily, the train was delayed. 

8. it was the dog's loud bark that alerted the household. 

9. we were driving into the forest, we saw a bison walking across 

the road. 

1 0. We started late we reached early. 

IV. Spot the errors in the following sentences. Then write the sentences 
correctly after rectifying the errors. 

1 . Do you know which is world's tallest building? 

2. We did not reject the proposal; nor we accepted it. 

3. I place great confidence on you. 

4. One of these cycle is defective. 

5. He is good athlete. He performs well. 

6. Have anyone seen my purse? 

7. Neitherthe Secretary nor the Manager were available. 

8. Thefurniturewere displayed atthe showroom. 

9. My mother made the servant to do the work. 

1 0. This is a hardly nut to crack. 

V. Put the verbs given in brackets in the correct tense form using the 
appropriate voice. 

I (see) this movie already. Let me (tell) you the story. 

It (portray) the story of three chipmunks who (be, train) by Dave, a 

music composer. The names of these chipmunks (be) Alvin, Theodore and 

Simon. The amazing fact (be) that these chipmunks could sing. They (be) 

an instant success. But the manager of a music firm, bent on making money 

(take) them with him. They (k^ep) busy touring various countries. As the 

chipmunks (perform) continuously, they (grow) exhausted and their 

voice (turn) hoarse. Finally Dave, who (train) them earlier, 

(rescue) them from the evil manager and they (unite). I (be) sure, you 

(enjoy) this movie. 


VI. Identify the pattern of the following sentences: 

1 . We wear woollen clothes in winter. 

2. Shyam gave me the right answer. 

3. He visits the orphanage frequently. 

4. We call Gandhi 'Mahatma'. 

5. Alexander conquered many countries. 

6. Velu grew tired after the match. 

7. I admire her for her courage. 

8. All the cows have been milked. 

9. This shoe is large. 

1 0. Suddenly they heard a cry. 

VII. Match the following conditional clauses with their respective 
main clauses: 

1 . If it had rained a) they would listen to you 

2. If you are tired b) I'll be there 

3. If I were your employer c) he would be rewarded 

4. If you trust me d) she could take you home 

5. If they had had funds e) we would have stayed at home 

6. If he did his work well f) I would treat you with friendliness 

7. If she gets the tickets g) she will go to Delhi tonight 

8. If you spoke kindly to them h) tell me your secret 

9. If you told her the way i) you may rest for sometime 

10. If you need me j) they would have supported the campaign 

VIII. Fill the blanks with suitable auxiliary verbs : 

1 . If you had gone to the circus last evening you enjoyed the show. 

2. Why he called by the Principal? 

3. What happened ifhe had failed to complete the job? 

4. Mobile phones switched off as soon as the meeting commences. 

5. How the stone ^taken up? Maybe by building a ramp 

that (reach) the top. 

6. How you leave the work unfinished? 

7. We to wear our uniform to school. 


8. They were asked to revise the lesson once again. Their marks not 


9. The IVIanager to revise the pay of the workers. 

1 0. Sheela asleep and her mobile phone switched off. 

IX, Rewrite as directed: 

1 . Father does scold me sometimes, (as a negative sentence) 

2. How I wish I were invited to the party! (as a statement) 

3. Can you ever regain your childhood? (as a statement) 

4. Having completed the work, Shreya went to play. (Begin with: Shreya 

5. Muthu is a man of great courage, (rewrite using 'who'} 

6. Didn't I tell you not to disturb me? (as a statement) 

7. The child is so short that it cannot climb up the tree. (Use the structure 
'too... to') 

8. Though he came late, he did not miss the lecture. (Start with: He came late...} 

9. Solve the crossword puzzle and you shall win a prize. (Use 'if) 

10. To his surprise, he was elected the class leader. (Rewrite with: He was ... 

11 . Rekha completed the assignment. She submitted it for correction.( Start with 
'Having' ) 

12. He listened to the story. He did not interrupt the narrator. (Combine the 
sentences using 'without') 

13. Please tell me when I should meet you. (Rewrite using 'to'} 

14. This is the room in which I read. (Supply a gerund in the place of the 
underlined words.) 

15. Theactorofthismovieisanewstar. (Rewrite using 'The man who ') 

X. Turn into reported speech : 

1 . Mr. Chari said to his driver, "Drop me at my office and pick me up at 3 pm." 

2. The teacher said to the students, "We are going on an excursion to Kerala 
next week." 

3. Nagaraj said to his father, "Will you allow me to go on an excursion 
to Kerala?. 


4. Valli said to Vimala, "You may find this sum difficult, if you do not learn the 

5. Veena said to her friend, " How beautiful your handwriting is!" 

6. Shankar said to his teacher, "Ma'am, I had prepared my project assignment but I 
forgotto bring it." 

7. Father said to his son, " Don't be worried. I am sure you will do well in the exam". 

8. The old woman said to the student, "Please help me cross the street." 

9. The residents said to the Collector, "Thank you for helping us during the floods 
last week." 

10. Rangan said to Ashok, "I have completed this exercise. Now I can submit it 
without fail tomorrow." 

XI, Turn into the direct speech: 

1 . Praveen told me that he did not go to movies often. 

2. Balaji exclaimed that I had rendered him a good deed. 

3. Naveen asked his brother if he would accompany him to the provision store. 

4. The Headmaster advised us to switch off the fans when we left the class. 

5. Daya wanted to know if tickets were available for the music concert. 

6. Selvan wondered if he could climb that hill. 

7. The teacher reminded the students to stand up when the National Anthem was 
being sung. 

8. Lalitha told Sarah that she had returned the library book the previous day. 

9. Gopi requested Suresh to lend him a pen. 

10. The teacher told Rangan that she was happy to see that he had done the 
exercises correctly. 

XtL Fill in the blanks with appropriate relative pronouns: 

1 . I don't know the answer to this questions is. 

2. The boy put aside many toys he no longer needed . 

3. The monkey tail was long kept grinning impishly. 

4. is he waiting for, his friend or his father? 

5. This is the person I wanted you to meet. 

6. By was the invitation delivered? 

7. I am sorry for I said to you yesterday. 


8. I've forgotten the name of the girl to you were speaking a while ago. 

9. Of these two shirts, would you prefer? 

1 0. We moved here the year in my brother was born. 

XII, Punctuate the passage given below, appropriately: 

Giri was one of the 150 passengers who were aboard the fateful plane that 
crashed while landing at the mangalore airport he had a miraculous escape as he 
clung to a tree on which he had landed while jumping from the plane oh what a narrow 
escape thought he to himself 

XilK Rewrite the sentence according to the instructions given in brackets, 
making suitable changes wherever necessary: 

1 . He made a blunt refusal. (Rewrite using the word 'bluntly') 

2. Only after I locked the house, did I pocket my key. (Rewrite using the word 

3. The teenager who saved a drowning child was appreciated by everyone. 
(Rewrite using the word 'appreciation'} 

4. The leader was received warmly wherever he went. (Rewrite using the word 

5. It is necessary to take tuitions only if you don't pay attention in the class. (Rewrite 
using the word 'necessity' ) 

6. Working mothers find it difficult to reach their offices on time. ( Rewrite using the 

7. The boy felt very sad when his dog died. (Rewrite using the word 'sorrow') 

8. Be courageous to stand up for the truth. ( Rewrite using the word 'courage') 

9. The Chief Guest spoke on preserving our culture. ( Rewrite using the words 
'speech' and 'preservation') 

1 0. She likes to be adventurous, (Rewrite using the word 'adventure*) 

XIV. Match the Idioms with their meanings : 

1 . apple of one's eye a) work without a break 

2. have an axe to grind b) as a total surprise 

3. to bark at the moon c) indulge in pleasant memories 

4. full of beans d) very early in the morning 

5. out of the blue e) have a personal cause for actions 

6. caught red-handed f ) as a total surprise 


7. at the crack of dawn 

8. pay back in the same coin 

9. take a trip down memory lane 

10. to be on tenterhooks 

g) be in a state of nervous suspense 
h) to make a fuss with no effect 
I ) caught when doing something wrong 
j ) lively, in high spirits 
k) to make a big issue out of a small 

XV* Supply suitable question tags: 

We get uninterrupted power supply, 


Manyofus do not know this information, 

It has been raining continuously, 

Shreya draws well, ? 

Swarna cannot run fast, ? 

The lessons are quite interesting. 
You know this story, 

He should see a doctor if he is unwell,. 
I'm not late, ? 

1 0. There are enough mangoes for all of us,_ 

XVL Exercises on Translation 

a) You are at a hospital. You find the following notice above the lift. The 
patient behind you needs a translation of the notice. Help him with your 

Sismurr^rflfterflsiT 2_uffiiufTffi^^fb@ lui1®iji 

b) You see a notice at the bus terminus. A North Indian, who cannot read Tamil, 
needs your help in understanding the notice. Give him the message in English. 

ua^eurr^d] grrA@ii) ^umuii s^simr© 

c) The following is an announcement in Tamil you hear while on the electric train. 
A foreign co-passenger is not able to understand it. Translate it into English 
for him. 

gfjB^ L51(raT6U6mrrif ^Q\&)^m(^in tflp^^^^eb glijsribr© r0Lfili_rme56TT 



Reading passages / excerpts / reference for activities : 

1 . iVIusic - The Hope Raiser 

2. Sam 

3. A Golden Path 

Emerald Treasury of Famous Speeches, 

Emerald Publishers 

4. The Face of - 

Judas Iscariot 



5. Wiii Thirst be Unquenchabie ? 

Excerpts from The Big Melt' by Brook 

Larmer - National Geographic, Special 

Edition on 'Water', April 2010 


Graded Reader of Activity Book X, Ministry 

of Education, Oman 

6. A Ciose Encounter 

'My Brother and his Invention' by Rex 



knowledge/251 052/stories - my-brother's- 


7. Fiying with the Moon 

Adapted from 'Migration and Bird Ringing' 

on their Wings (renamed) 

by Jamal Ara from 'Reading for Meaning', 


8. Our Heritage- A Timeless IVIarvel- 

Excerpts from 'The Hindu', dtd.lOth Jan, 

201 0; 

bigtemple.php & nikilnarayanan 

Poems : 

1 . Child Labour - Fameed Jawaid, | 

2. IVIigrant Bird - Famida Y. Basheer 

3. Shilpi -Ashwin Parthiban 

The State would apprectate Information about any unacknowledged materiai 

published in the Textbook. 




























































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